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EFNS guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of primary dystonias A.Albanese a,b,F.Asmus c,K.P.Bhatia d,A.E.Elia a,b,B.Elibol e,G.Filippini a,T.Gasser c,

J.K.Krauss f,N.Nardocci a,A.Newton g and J.Valls-Sole′h

a Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta,Milan,Italy;

b Universita`Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Milan,Italy;

c Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases,Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research,University of Tubingen,Germany;

d Institut

e o

f Neurology,University College London, Queen Square,London,UK;e Hacettepe University Hospitals,Department of Neurology,Ankara,Turkey;f Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School Hannover,MHH,Hannover,Germany;

g European Dystonia Federation,Brussels,Belgium;and

h Neurology Department, Hospital Cl?′n ic,Barcelona,Spain


classi?cation,diagnosis, dystonia,genetics, guidelines,treatment Received6February2010 Accepted11March2010Objectives:To provide a revised version of earlier guidelines published in2006. Background:Primary dystonias are chronic and often disabling conditions with a widespread spectrum mainly in young people.

Diagnosis:Primary dystonias are classi?ed as pure dystonia,dystonia plus or par-oxysmal dystonia syndromes.Assessment should be performed using a validated rating scale for dystonia.Genetic testing may be performed after establishing the clinical diagnosis.DYT1testing is recommended for patients with primary dystonia with limb onset before age30,and in those with an a?ected relative with early-onset dystonia.DYT6testing is recommended in early-onset or familial cases with cranio-cervical dystonia or after exclusion of DYT1.Individuals with early-onset myoclonus should be tested for mutations in the DYT11gene.If direct sequencing of the DYT11 gene is negative,additional gene dosage is required to improve the proportion of mutations detected.A levodopa trial is warranted in every patient with early-onset primary dystonia without an alternative diagnosis.In patients with idiopathic dysto-nia,neurophysiological tests can help with describing the pathophysiological mecha-nisms underlying the disorder.

Treatment:Botulinum toxin(BoNT)type A is the?rst-line treatment for primary cranial(excluding oromandibular)or cervical dystonia;it is also e?ective on writing dystonia.BoNT/B is not inferior to BoNT/A in cervical dystonia.Pallidal deep brain stimulation(DBS)is considered a good option,particularly for primary generalized or cervical dystonia,after medication or BoNT have failed.DBS is less e?ective in sec-ondary dystonia.This treatment requires a specialized expertise and a multidisci-plinary team.


Dystonia is characterized by sustained muscle con-tractions,frequently causing repetitive twisting move-ments or abnormal postures[1,2].Although thought to be rare,dystonia may be more common than currently evidenced because of underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis [3].Adult onset primary dystonia can present mainly with tremor,which could be misdiagnosed as Parkin-son?s disease[4].In such cases,imaging of dopaminergic terminals with dopamine transporter(DAT)scan or F-DOPA PET may help with the di?erential diagnosis.

Primary dystonias are diseases where torsion dystonia is the only or the largely prevalent clinical feature.To improve clarity of de?nitions and exchange of clinical information,this EFNS committee proposes to intro-duce a new terminology for the etiological classi?cation of primary forms,which encompass pure dystonia, dystonia plus and paroxysmal dystonia syndromes (Table1).Areas of speci?c concern include clinical diagnosis,di?erential diagnosis with other movement disorders,aetiology,genetic counselling,drug treat-ment,surgical interventions and rehabilitation. Search strategy

Computerized MEDLINE and EMBASE searches (2005–July2009)were conducted using a combination of textwords,MeSH and EMTREE terms?dystonia?,

Correspondence:A.Albanese,Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo

Besta,Via G.Celoria,11,20133Milano,Italy(tel.:

+390223942552;fax+390223942539;e-mail alberto.albanese@


ó2010The Author(s)

European Journal of Neurologyó2010EFNS5 European Journal of Neurology2011,18:5–18doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03042.x

?blepharospasm?,?torticollis?,?writer?s cramp?,?Meige syndrome?,?dysphonia?and?sensitivity and speci?city?or?diagnosis?,and?clinical trial?or?random allocation?or?therapeutic use?limited to human studies.The Cochrane Library and the reference lists of all known primary and review articles were searched for relevant citations.No language restrictions were applied.Studies of diagnosis,diagnostic test and various treatments for patients su?ering from dystonia were considered and rated as level A to C according to the recommendations for EFNS scienti?c task forces[5].Where only class IV evidence was available but consensus could be achieved, we have proposed good practice points.

Method for reaching consensus

The results of the literature searches were circulated by e-mail to the task force members for comments.The task force chairman prepared a?rst draft of the man-uscript based on the results of the literature review,data synthesis and comments from the task force members. The draft and the recommendations were discussed during a conference held in Florence on12September 2009,until consensus was reached within the task force. Results

In addition to the previously published literature screen [6],we found299papers,amongst whom191were primary diagnostic studies,and108were e?cacy studies.

Clinical features of dystonia

Literature search on the clinical features of dystonia identi?ed a report of a multidisciplinary working group [7],one workshop report[8],64primary studies on clinically based diagnosis and125primary studies on the diagnostic accuracy of di?erent laboratory tests. The primary clinical studies encompassed4cohort studies,15case–control studies,12cross-sectional and 33clinical series.

The clinical features of dystonia have been summa-rized in the previous guidelines edition[6].More recent reviews and new primary studies have focused on spe-ci?c diagnostic features;a recent review has assembled the features of dystonia into a diagnostic?owchart[9]. Dystonia is a dynamic condition that often changes in severity depending on the posture assumed and on vol-untary activity of the involved body area.The changing nature of dystonia makes the development of rating scales with acceptable clinimetric properties problematic. Three clinical scales are available for generalized dystonia:the Fahn–Marsden rating scale[10],the Uni?ed Dystonia Rating Scale and the global dystonia rating scale[11].The total scores of these three scales correlate well,they have excellent internal consistency, from good to excellent inter-rater correlation and from

Table1Classi?cation of dystonia based on three axes

1.By cause(aetiology)

Primary dystonias

Primary pure dystonias:torsion dystonia is the only clinical sign(apart from tremor),and there is no identi?able exogenous cause or other inherited or degenerative disease.Examples are DYT1and DYT6dystonias.

Primary plus dystonias:torsion dystonia is a prominent sign but is associated with another movement disorder,for example myoclonus or parkinsonism.There is no evidence of neurodegeneration.For example,DOPA-responsive dystonia(DYT5)and myoclonus-dystonia(DYT11) belong to this category.

Primary paroxysmal dystonias:torsion dystonia occurs in brief episodes with normalcy in between.These disorders are classi?ed as idiopathic (often familial although sporadic cases also occur)and symptomatic because of a variety of causes.Three main forms are known depending on the triggering factor.In paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia(PKD;DYT9),attacks are induced by sudden movement;in paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia(PED)by exercise such as walking or swimming and in the non-kinesigenic form(PNKD;DYT8)by alcohol,coffee,tea,etc.A complicated familial form with PNKD and spasticity(DYT10)has also been described.

Heredodegenerative dystonias:dystonia is a feature,amongst other neurological signs,of a heredodegenerative disorder.Example:Wilson?s disease. Secondary dystonias:dystonia is a symptom of an identi?ed neurological condition,such as a focal brain lesion,exposure to drugs or chemicals. Examples:dystonia because of a brain tumour,off-period dystonia in Parkinson?s disease.

2.By age at onset

Early-onset(variably de?ned as£20–30years):usually starts in a leg or arm and frequently progresses to involve other limbs and the trunk. Late onset:usually starts in the neck(including the larynx),the cranial muscles or one arm.Tends to remain localized with restricted progression to adjacent muscles.

3.By distribution

Focal:single body region(e.g.,writer?s cramp,blepharospasm)

Segmental:contiguous body regions(e.g.,cranial and cervical,cervical and upper limb)

Multifocal:non-contiguous body regions(e.g.,upper and lower limb,cranial and upper limb)

Generalized:both legs and at least one other body region(usually one or both arms)

Hemidystonia:half of the body(usually secondary to a structural lesion in the contralateral basal ganglia)

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fair to excellent inter-rater agreement[11].An evidence-based review identi?ed more than10rating scales for cervical dystonia[12].However,the most frequently used ones are the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torti-collis Rating Scale[13],the Tsui scale[14]and the Cervical Dystonia Severity Scale[15].

Dystonia in?uences various aspects of quality of life, particularly those related to physical and social func-tioning.Class IV studies have evaluated the predictors of quality of life in dystonia[12,16].Functional dis-ability,body concept and depression were important predictors of quality of life in dystonia.


The classi?cation is based on three axes:(i)aetiology, (ii)age at onset of symptoms,and(iii)distribution of body regions a?ected(Table1).The etiological axis de?nes primary(idiopathic)dystonia with no identi?-able exogenous cause or evidence of neurodegeneration (i.e.,no progressive loss of neural cells).In the pure form,dystonia is the only clinical sign(apart from dystonic tremor).We propose to call these forms?pri-mary pure dystonia?(PPD).In dystonia plus,instead, usually there are additional movement disorders(e.g., myoclonus or parkinsonism).In the paroxysmal form, symptoms are intermittent and provoked by identi?able triggers(e.g.,kinesigenic because of sudden movement, exercise-induced or non-kinesigenic).Non-primary dystonia is because of heredodegenerative diseases or secondary(symptomatic)to known causes;these forms are characterized by the presence of additional symp-toms or signs,apart from movement disorders.A number of genes and gene loci have been identi?ed for primary as well as for other forms. Recommendations and good practice points

1.The diagnosis of dystonia is clinical,the core being abnormal postures(with or without tremor)and the recognition of speci?c features,e.g.gestes antagonistes, over?ow and mirror movements(good practice point).

2.The classi?cation of dystonia is important for pro-viding appropriate management,prognostic informa-tion,genetic counselling and treatment(good practice point).

3.Because of the lack of speci?c diagnostic tests,expert observation is https://www.doczj.com/doc/5714900774.html,ing a structured?ow chart[9]may increase diagnostic accuracy(good prac-tice point).

4.Appropriate investigations are required if the initial presentation or the course suggests heredodegenerative or secondary(symptomatic)dystonia(good practice point).

5.Assessment of dystonia should be performed using a validated rating scale(good practice point).

Use of genetic test in diagnosis and counselling

Two genes for PPD have been identi?ed:DYT1and DYT6[17,18].Three other gene loci for autosomal-dominant PPD(DYT4,DYT7and DYT13)and two forms of recessive PPD(DYT2and DYT17)have been described with phenotypes ranging from cranial to generalized dystonia;however,the speci?c gene abnormality has not yet been identi?ed[19].

All known DYT1mutations reside in exon5of the TorsinA gene,except for one in exon3[20].Screening for a GAG-deletion at position302/303is su?cient for clinical testing(class II)[21].Only two patients with PPD have been described with missense mutations in exon3(p.F205I)and exon5(p.R288Q),and the pathogenicity of this variant has not been proven,as no familial cosegregation has been demonstrated[20,22]. Early-onset DYT1dystonia typically presents in childhood and usually starts in a limb,gradually and in many patients rapidly progressing to a generalized form (class II)[21].Many exceptions to this typical presen-tation have been reported,especially in mutation car-riers from DYT1families with focal or segmental dystonia of adult onset(class IV)[23,24].Family studies have assessed that the penetrance of DYT1dystonia is around30%.

DYT1mutations are the most important genetic cause of early-onset PPD worldwide.Phenotype-genotype correlations have been assessed in di?erent DYT1dys-tonia populations(class II and III)[21,25].In Ashkenazi Jews,DYT1testing is positive in close to100%in patients with limb onset dystonia before age26.Rec-ommendation1below is based on such evidence[21,26]. In the western-European population,the proportion of DYT1mutation negative dystonia is considered higher than in North America[25].Patients with early-onset PPD not caused by the DYT1gene tend to have later age at onset,less commonly limb onset,more frequent cer-vical involvement,and a slower progression than DYT1 PPD cases(class IV)[27]In patients with generalized dystonia with cranio-cervical onset DYT6mutations should be considered[28].thanatos associated protein (THAP1)has been identi?ed to cause autosomal-domi-nant DYT6,?mixed?-type dystonia,in Amish-Mennonite families with cranial or limb onset at young age(from5 to48years)[18,29].DYT6mutations have been described in other populations with clinical presenta-tions from focal to generalized dystonia in a few per cent of cases.In particular,early-onset generalized PPD with spasmodic dysphonia is a characteristic phenotype caused by DYT6mutations(class IV)[28].

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Four dystonia-plus syndromes have been character-ized genetically:dopa-responsive dystonia(DRD, DYT5),myoclonus-dystonia(M-D,DYT11),rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism(RDP,DYT12)and auto-somal-recessive(AR)dystonia-parkinsonism(DYT16). The most common form is DRD linked to the GTPcyclohydrolase I(GCH1)gene.As this is a treat-able and often misdiagnosed condition,a particular e?ort should be made to establish a correct diagnosis. The classical phenotype comprises onset with walking di?culties before20years,and progression to seg-mental or generalized dystonia,sometimes with addi-tional parkinsonism and sustained response to levodopa[30,31].Three additional DRD categories with di?erent courses have been recognized:(i)young-onset(<20years)cases with episodic dystonia,toe walking or progressive scoliosis throughout life; (ii)compound heterozygous GCH1mutation carriers, who develop young-onset severe DRD with initial hypotonia similar to AR-DRD caused by tyrosine hydroxylase(TH)mutations;and(iii)adult-onset DRD patients manifesting above age30with mild dystonia or resting tremor or non-tremulous parkinsonism[31,32]. To date numerous GCH1mutations but no phenotype-genotype correlations to speci?c heterozygous GCH1 mutations have been detected.

Inclusion of screening for gene dosage alterations of GCH1[33,34]in addition to direct sequencing has in-creased the rate of detected mutations to over80% [35,36].

If genetic testing of GCH1is negative,other genes of the tetrahyhdrobiopterin and dopamine synthesis pathways like TH and sepiapterin reductase should be considered,especially if inheritance is recessive or atypical features like mental retardation or oculogyric crises are present(class IV)[36,37].Parkin mutations are a rare di?erential diagnosis of DRD,and the diagnosis can be made by dopamine transporter imag-ing(class IV)[38].For the TH gene,sequencing of the 3¢-promoter sequence is recommended to increase mutation detection(class IV)[39].

A therapeutic trial with levodopa has been proposed for diagnostic purposes(class IV)[40].Alternatively, studies on pterin and dopamine metabolites from cer-ebrospinal?uid(CSF)or a phenylalanine loading test have been suggested as diagnostic complements[41–43], but there is no clear evidence regarding their diagnostic accuracy and both may only be performed in special-ized centres.Hence,the practical recommendation still remains that every patient with early-onset dystonia without an alternative diagnosis should have a trial with levodopa.The initial symptoms at the onset of M-D emerge in childhood and usually consist of light-ning jerks and dystonia mostly a?ecting the neck and the upper limbs,with a prevalent proximal involvement and slow progression[44].In a subset of patients,M-D presents as a gait disorder with lower limb onset and evolves into the typical clinical presentation until ado-lescence[45,46].Myoclonus and dystonia are strikingly alleviated by alcohol in many but not in all patients [47].However,a response to alcohol is not speci?c for DYT11(class IV)[48–50].In patients with the typical M-D phenotype,mutations in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene(DYT11)may be detected in over50%with an age at onset generally below20[51–54].As in DRD,the rate of mutation detection in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene is increased by screening for exon or whole gene deletions(gene dosage)[50,55–57].Complex pheno-types with additional features may be related to chro-mosomal deletions and rearrangements of the7q21 region[50,57–59].

In DYT12,RDP,the mutated gene is ATP1A3.RDP is an extremely rare disease with onset in childhood or early adulthood in which patients develop dystonia, bradykinesia,postural instability,dysarthria and dys-phagia over a period ranging from several hours to weeks with triggering factors[60].In addition to rapid onset,features suggesting an ATP1A3mutation are prominent bulbar symptoms and a gradient of dystonia severity with the cranial region being more severely a?ected than arms and legs.Tremor at onset or prominent pain could not be found in ATP1A3muta-tion-positive patients[61].

Protein-kinase RNA-dependent activator(PRKRA) has been identi?ed as the DYT16gene on chromosome 2q31.2.Mutations cause a novel form of non-degener-ative,early-onset AR dystonia-parkinsonism[62].The phenotypic spectrum of DYT16has not been deter-mined yet.

Four forms of paroxysmal dystonias have been genetically de?ned to date.In two,only the locus has been mapped:paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis with episodic ataxia and spasticity(DYT9)and par-oxysmal familial kinesigenic dyskinesia(DYT10). Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dystonia(PNKD,DYT8) is caused by mutations in the myo?brillogenesis regulator1(MR-1)gene in all families with a typical PNKD phenotype[63–65].This condition is charac-terized by episodes of choreodystonia with onset in infancy or early childhood.Attacks typically last 10min–1h and are induced by ca?eine or alcohol [66].

Paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia(PED)is caused by mutations in the gene for the glucose trans-porter1(SLC2A1,DYT18).In addition to PED, patients with DYT18gene may present with epilepsy (absence or generalized tonic-clonic seizures),migraine, cognitive de?cits,haemolytic anaemia or developmental

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delay.A diagnostic marker is a decreased CSF/serum glucose ratio below0.5(class III)[67,68]. Recommendations and good practice points

1.Genetic testing should be performed after establish-ing the clinical diagnosis.Genetic testing is not su?-cient to make a diagnosis of dystonia without clinical features of dystonia[26,69,70](level B).Genetic coun-selling is recommended.

2.DYT1testing is recommended for patients with limb-onset,primary dystonia with onset before age30[70] (level B),as well as in those with onset after age30if they have an a?ected relative with early-onset dystonia [26,70](level B).

3.In dystonia families,DYT1testing is not recom-mended in asymptomatic individuals(good practice point).

4.DYT6testing is recommended in early-onset dystonia or familial dystonia with cranio-cervical predominance [28,29]or after exclusion of DYT1(good practice point).

5.A diagnostic levodopa trial is warranted in every patient with early-onset dystonia without an alternative diagnosis[40](good practice point).

6.Individuals with early-onset myoclonus a?ecting the arms or neck,particularly if positive for autosomal-dominant inheritance and if triggered by action,should be tested for the DYT11gene[51](good practice point). If direct sequencing of the SGCE gene is negative,gene dosage studies increase the proportion of mutation-positives(level C).

7.Diagnostic testing for the PNKD gene(DYT8)is recommended in symptomatic individuals with PNKD (good practice point).

8.Gene testing for mutation in GLUT1is recom-mended in patients with paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesias,especially if involvement of GLUT1is suggested by low CSF/serum glucose ratio,epileptic seizures or haemolytic anaemia(good practice point). Use of neurophysiology in the diagnosis and

classi?cation of dystonia

Neurophysiological tests are helpful in the character-ization of functional abnormalities in patients with dystonia.However,all neurophysiology studies are class IV,not providing evidence-based results.The need for standardized study designs and methods to investi-gate the diagnostic sensitivity and speci?city of neuro-physiological tests in dystonia has been emphasized in a recent review[71].A number of studies have been reviewed previously[6]and will not be dealt with here. Alterations in cerebellar functions suggest a role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of dystonia[72,73].Cortical excitability is abnormally enhanced in symp-tomatic and non-symptomatic DYT1carriers,whilst this is not the case in DYT11M-D syndrome[74].The induction of plastic changes in the motor cortex by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS)at theta burst frequency has been found to be excessive in patients with dystonia(either genetic or sporadic)and abnormally reduced in asymptomatic DYT1carriers [75].It is possible that such decrease in gene carriers with no symptoms indicates a form of protection against the propensity or susceptibility of DYT1 patients to undergo plastic changes that could eventu-ally lead to clinical manifestations of dystonia. Disturbed sensory processing has been for the past years recognized as one of the main pathophysiological agents of dystonia[76,77].Many authors have contrib-uted recently to con?rm these?ndings and expand in the implication of altered sensory processing in the disor-dered motor control of patients with dystonia:abnormal sensory perception has been reported with studies of mental rotation and two point discrimination[78]. Several reports have shown abnormal enhancement of sensory evoked potentials(SEP)in patients with dys-tonia[79].Notably,however,the only study in which the assessment was carried out blindly showed that di?er-ences in the size of the SEPs were not signi?cant between patients and controls or between patients before and after botulinum toxin treatment[80].Somatosensory stimuli cause abnormally reduced inhibitory e?ects on the motor evoked potentials(MEP)to TMS,regardless of whether the stimulus is applied on homotopic or heterotopic peripheral nerves[81].A recent study indi-cates that somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold abnormalities are a generalized feature of patients with primary focal dystonias and are a valid tool for screening subclinical sensory abnormalities[82]. Using the paradigm of paired associative stimulation (PAS),i.e.,applying a sensory stimulus followed15–20ms later by a single pulse TMS,Tamura et al.[79] reported a transient enhancement of cortical excitabil-ity,manifested by an increase in the P27of the somatosensory evoked potentials tested15min after PAS.The same intervention was reported to cause an abnormal increase in the MEP,which is not only limited to the territory depending on the nerve stimulated but includes other muscles as well[83].

In most instances,neurophysiological abnormalities are not speci?c but,rather,they reveal a trend towards functional defects that may or may not become clini-cally relevant.This is the case in non-a?ected relatives of patients with dystonia[78]or in non-dystonic sites of patients with focal dystonia.Changes in neuronal excitability have been found in patients with forms of dystonia akin to psychogenicity[84,85].

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European Journal of Neurologyó2010EFNS European Journal of Neurology18,5–18

Recommendations and good practice points

1.Neurophysiological tests are not routinely recom-mended for the diagnosis or classi?cation of dystonia; however,multiple simultaneous electromyography (EMG)recordings from various muscles may contri-bute to the clinical assessment by showing characteristic features of dystonia[9](good practice point).

Use of brain imaging in the diagnosis of dystonia Conventional or structural MRI studies in primary dystonia are normal,and a normal MRI study is usu-ally considered a pre-requisite to state that a patient?s dystonia is primary.Recent class III[86]and class IV [87–89]di?usion magnetic resonance studies found signal abnormalities in various brain areas(including corpus callosum,basal ganglia,pontine brainstem and pre-frontal cortical areas)in cervical dystonia,writer?s cramp and generalized dystonia,but not in blepharos-pam.

Interesting prospects of understanding the patho-physiological mechanisms of primary and secondary dystonia are o?ered by functional MRI studies.Class IV studies conducted in series of patients with blepha-rospasm[90],writer?s cramp[91–93]or other focal dystonia of the arm[94]demonstrated that several deep structures and cortical areas may be activated in pri-mary dystonia,depending on the di?erent modalities of examination.A class II study on blepharospasm and cervical dystonia demonstrated increased basal ganglia activation in a task not primarily involving the dystonic musculature[95].

Recent class II[96]and class IV[97–100]voxel-based morphometry studies demonstrated an increase in grey matter density or volume in various areas,including cerebellum,basal ganglia and primary somatosensory cortex.This increase might represent plastic changes secondary to overuse,but di?erent interpretations have been considered.Another class IV study found that non-DYT1adult-onset patients with dystonia and asymptomatic DYT1carriers have signi?cantly larger basal ganglia compared to symptomatic DYT1muta-tion carriers,with a signi?cant negative correlation between severity of dystonia and basal ganglia size in DYT1patients[101].

Positron emission tomography studies with di?erent tracers have provided information about areas of abnormal metabolism in di?erent types of dystonia and in di?erent conditions(e.g.during active involuntary movement or during sleep),providing insight on the role of cerebellar and subcortical structures versus cortical areas in the pathophysiology of dystonia(all class IV studies)[102,103].A signi?cant reduction in caudate and putamen D2receptor availability and re-duced[11C]raclopride binding in the ventrolateral thalamus were evident in DYT6and DYT1dystonia in a class III study[104].The changes were greater in DYT6than DYT1carriers without di?erence between manifesting and non-manifesting carriers of either genotype.

A practical approach to di?erentiate patients with dystonia-plus syndromes from patients with parkin-sonism and secondary dystonia is to obtain a single photon emission computerized tomography study with ligands for dopamine transporter;this is readily avail-able and less expensive than positron emission tomog-raphy.Patients with DRD have normal studies, whereas patients with early-onset Parkinson?s disease show reduction of striatal ligand uptake(class IV)[105]. It has been suggested that patients with tremor resem-bling parkinsonian tremor who have normal DAT scans may be a?ected by dystonia[4]. Recommendations and good practice points

1.Structural brain imaging is not routinely required when there is a con?dent diagnosis of primary dystonia in adult patients,because a normal study is expected in primary dystonia[106](good practice point).

2.Structural brain imaging(MRI)is necessary for screening of secondary forms of dystonia[107](good practice point).Computed tomography may be required to di?erentiate between calcium and iron accumulation.

3.Pre-synaptic dopaminergic scan(DAT or18F-DOPA)is useful to di?erentiate between DRD and juvenile Parkinson?s disease presenting with dystonia (good practice point).This can also be useful to dis-tinguish dystonic tremor from parkinsonian tremor (good practice point).


Botulinum toxin(BoNT)treatment continues to be the ?rst choice treatment for most types of focal dystonia. Pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments have also a role in the treatment algorithm.

Medical treatments:BoNT

It is established that BoNT,in properly adjusted doses, are e?ective and safe treatments of cranial(excluding oromandibular)and cervical dystonia[6].In the last years long-term studies on the e?cacy and safety of BoNT/A have become available,a new formulation of BoNT/A has been marketed,and new studies on BoNT/ B have been performed.Further to systematic reviews already reported in the previous guidelines version,a new evidence-based systematic review released by the

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American Academy of Neurology[108]recommended that BoNT injections should be o?ered as a treatment option for cervical dystonia(established as e?ective)and may be o?ered for blepharospasm,focal upper extre-mity dystonia,adductor laryngeal dystonia(probably e?ective).A lower level of evidence was detected for focal lower limb dystonia(possibly e?ective).

The e?cacy and safety pro?le of BoNT treatment has been evaluated in long-term observational studies. In patients with di?erent dystonia types followed for >12years,there was no decline of e?cacy and the main side e?ects consisted in muscle weakness in or around the injected region[109].Also,immunogenicity was found to be low for BoTN/A in long-term use, although might be higher for BoTN/B(Class III, [110]).Four class I[111–114],two class II[115,116], two class III[80,117]and29class IV new studies on BoNT were identi?ed.These reports have con?rmed the long-term safety of BoNT products for dystonia and other conditions.A meta-analysis performed on children with cerebral palsy found that adverse events are more frequent amongst children with cerebral palsy than in individuals with other conditions[118]. Occasional occurrences of botulism-like symptoms have been reported in children and in adults treated with BoNT products;therefore,the United States Food and Drug Administration has ordered the manufacturers to add a boxed warning to the pre-scribing information for each product about the po-tential for serious side e?ects at sites distant from injection[119].No similar initiative has been taken by the European Medicines Agency.Furthermore,the possible occurrence of central e?ect following BoNT because of axonal migration and neuronal transcytosis has been recently suggested[120],but not unequivo-cally demonstrated.

Three recent studies compared di?erent BoNT/A products and three compared the A and B serotypes. Two class II trials reported that Xeomin is as e?ective and safe as Botox for the treatment for cervical dysto-nia[115]and blepharospasm[121].A class IV trial found that in cervical dystonia and blepharospasm, Botox is more e?cacious than Dysport and has a longer duration of e?ect[122].A class IV study with longer follow-up reported that in blepharospasm the mean duration of improvement was higher for Dysport than for Botox[123].Two class I studies found that improvement of cervical dystonia was comparable following BoNT/A and B treatments,but dry mouth and dysphagia were more frequent with BoNT/B [112,114].A class II study reported that patients treated with BoNT/B had less saliva production and more severe constipation than those treated with BoNT/A [116].

A class IV study reported that using EMG guidance can improve outcome in patients with cervical dystonia [124].A class III trial evaluated that the association of ad hoc rehabilitative programme with BoNT injections in patients with cervical dystonia[117]provided more marked improvement and a longer duration e?ect than BoNT injections alone.

Recommendations and good practice points

1.BoNT/A(or type B if there is resistance to type A) can be regarded as?rst-line treatment for primary cranial(excluding oromandibular)or cervical dystonia [125,126](level A).

2.BoNT/A is e?ective for writer?s cramp[113](level A) and is possibly e?ective in other types of upper limb dystonia,but controlled dose adjustments are needed because of frequent muscle weakness(good practice point).

3.BoNT/A is probably e?ective for adductor-type lar-yngeal dystonia,but there is insu?cient evidence to support e?cacy in abductor-type laryngeal dystonia and in muscular tension dysphonia(good practice point).

4.BoNT are safe and e?cacious when repeated treat-ments are performed over many years(good practice point),but doctors and patients should be aware that excessive cumulative doses may be dangerous,particu-larly in children(good practice point).

5.BoNT injections can be performed by direct inspec-tion;EMG-or ultrasound-assisted targeting may improve clinical outcome(good practice point).

6.BoNT should not be used in patients a?ected by a disorder of neuromuscular transmission or in presence of local infection at the injection site.The recom-mended dosage should not be exceeded(good practice point).

Other medical treatments

No new class A or B data are available for oral medi-cations.Therefore,the previously reported recommen-dations and good practice points are retained[6]. Neurosurgical procedures:Deep brain stimulation

Long-term electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus internus(GPi)is now established as an e?ective treat-ment for various types of dystonia[127].The use of deep brain stimulation(DBS)for dystonia currently addresses in particular primary generalized or segmen-tal forms,complex cervical dystonia and tardive dys-tonia in patients who do not achieve su?cient relief with conservative approaches[128].Other manifesta-tions are still being explored,such as status dystonicus, task-speci?c dystonia,camptocormia and secondary

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dystonias including hemidystonia,pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration,Lesch-Nyhan and cere-bral palsy-related dystonia-choreoathetosis.DBS for dystonia is widely available in Western countries and in Japan.After it received FDA approval in the form of a humanitarian device exemption in the United States and CE certi?cation in Europe,it is uniformly being reimbursed by health-insurance carriers.

In August2006,the National Institute for Clinical Excellence(NICE),UK,published a guideline for treatment of tremor and dystonia with DBS[129], which was based on data from a systematic review and two primary studies.According to this evidence,GPi DBS provided marked bene?t of dystonia,with improvement of dystonia motor scores ranging between34and88%and disability scores between40 and50%.A meta-analysis using a regression analysis published in2006revealed that longer duration of dystonia correlated negatively with surgical outcome [130].The German DBS Working Group recently pro-vided recommendations on several practical issues[131]. One class I randomized sham-controlled study with a crossover design at3months found that in patients with primary generalized and segmental dystonia the change from baseline in the mean dystonia motor score was signi?cantly greater in the neurostimulation group ()15.8±14.1points)than in the sham-stimulation group()1.4±3.8points)[132].In addition,patients in the sham-stimulation group had a similar bene?t when they switched to active treatment during the open label phase of the study.A total of22adverse events occurred in19patients(the most frequent adverse event was dysarthria)during an overall follow-up of 6months.

There are several studies with some form of blinded assessment,including either blinded video evaluation or double-blind assessment randomized to o?or on DBS [133–136]which provide class II-III evidence and sup-port the e?cacy and safety of DBS GPi in selected patients with primary generalized or segmental dystonia [133,134],primary cervical dystonia[135]or tardive dystonia[136].

Numerous class IV studies with either prospective or retrospective design have been published over the past few years.The e?cacy of GPi DBS was related to dis-ease duration in one study[137].Quality of life was shown to improve both in patients with primary seg-mental and generalized dystonia[138–141].Stimulation via contacts located directly within the posteroventral portion of the GPi provided the best overall e?ect[142]. Whilst high-frequency stimulation at130Hz or higher has been used in most studies,stimulation<100Hz has been shown to be a possible alternative in selected patients with dystonia[143,144].

It is clear that improvement of dystonia after DBS frequently follows a particular pattern,with phasic, myoclonic and tremulous elements improving earlier than tonic elements,the latter often with a delay of weeks or months[145–147].More recently,it has also been shown that upon recurrence of dystonia after switching o?DBS,phasic elements manifest again within minutes and tonic elements within hours[148]. The GPi has been used in most studies on chronic stimulation,whilst there is limited experience with other targets[128]such as thalamus[149],STN[150]and cortex[151].

Overall,the most bene?cial results with pallidal DBS were reported in children with primary generalized dystonia.DYT1dystonia was shown to improve in the range of40%to90%[152–154]and also,adult patients with non-DYT1primary generalized dystonia can achieve equivalent bene?t[145,146,155].The French Spidy Study on patients with primary generalized dys-tonia reported a mean motor improvement of54%,and a mean improvement of disability of44%at1-year follow-up[133].

Long-term e?cacy was reported to be sustained after more than5years of follow-up[156–159].Bilateral pallidal stimulation did not negatively a?ect cognitive performance[160].

In patients with cervical dystonia,GPi DBS has been used primarily in those who were thought not to be ideal candidates for peripheral denervation,including patients with head tremor and myoclonus,or marked phasic dystonic movements[147,161,162].In the past few years,however,indications have been widened.In a recent class II trial,the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale(TWSTRS)dystonia severity score improved from a mean of14.7±4.2before surgery to8.4±4.4at12months post-operatively [135].Disability and pain scores improved similarly. Patients with primary craniofacial dystonia may achieve similar bene?t than patients with other seg-mental dystonia with regard to the severity score.In a study on six patients with Meige syndrome,a mean improvement of72%of dystonia motor scores was seen at6months post-operatively[163].The impact of GPi on secondary dystonia,in general,is much less pro-nounced.Patients with dystonia and choreoathetosis because of cerebral palsy may achieve limited bene?t with motor scores improving between10–40%,but nevertheless yielding acceptable patient satisfaction in some patients[164].Tardive dystonia,as opposed to other dystonias appears also a good indication for Gpi DBS with bene?ts similar to those seen in primary dystonia[136].

Safety aspects which have to be considered include surgery-related complications,stimulation-induced side

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e?ects and hardware-related problems.Recently,it was noted that Gpi DBS in patients with segmental dystonia may induce a parkinsonian gait or bradykinesia in extremities which were not a?ected by dystonia at chronic stimulation with high voltage[163,165]. Chronic stimulation in dystonia uses both higher pulse width and voltage than in PD which results in earlier battery depletion;replacement may be needed sometimes every2years or less.Sudden battery deple-tion may induce acute recurrence of dystonia,some-times resulting in a medical emergency.No study,thus far,has evaluated if rechargeable pulse generators are more useful than non-rechargeable ones for patients with dystonia.

Recommendations and good practice points

1.Pallidal DBS is considered a good option,particu-larly for primary generalized or segmental dystonia, after medication or BoNT has failed to provide ade-quate improvement[132](level A).

2.Pallidal DBS can be considered a good option for cervical dystonia,after medication or BoNT has failed to provide adequate improvement[135](level B).

3.Pallidal DBS,in general,is less e?ective in secondary dystonia with the exception of tardive dystonia [164,166](level C).

4.This procedure requires a specialized expertise and a multidisciplinary team and is not without side e?ects (good practice point).

Other surgical procedures

In the past5years,there have been no new studies providing class I or II evidence for selective peripheral denervation,myectomy and myotomy,intrathecal baclofen or radiofrequency lesioning.Therefore,the previously reported recommendations and good prac-tice points are retained[6].

Physical therapy and rehabilitation

Recently,there have been an increased number of publications showing that physical therapy and reha-bilitation procedures have an important role in the care of patients with dystonia[167,168].A number of studies have reported motor improvement in patients with writer?s cramp and other forms of focal dystonia fol-lowing physical treatment,and sensory and motor retraining[169–171].

A class II study showed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation caused a signi?cant bene?cial e?ect in patients with writer?s cramp[172].A class IV study of patients with primary writing tremor showed bene?cial e?ect of writing after training with a device that sup-ported the hand and held the pen[173].This evidence adds to the already reported class III study[117]where physical therapy was combined with BoNT/A injections in patients with cervical dystonia.

Musicians with dystonia may have speci?c bene?t from motor retraining.A class IV study reported the long-term subjective outcome in a large series of musi-cians with focal dystonia after treatment with di?erent medical and physical options:54%of patients reported an alleviation of symptoms,33%improved with trih-exiphenidyl,49%with BoNT,50%with pedagogical retraining,56%with unmonitored technical exercises and63%with ergonomic changes[167]. Recommendations and good practice points

1.Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to fore-arm?exor muscles administered is probably e?ective in patients with writer?s cramp[172](level B).

2.We encourage the conduction of new randomized controlled studies on these potentially useful interven-tions,particularly for patients with upper limb dystonia (good practice point).


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肌张力障碍的发病机理是什么 看到有很多人在网上打听及张力障碍的发病机理,我恰好知道一些,就跟大家分享一下。肌张力障碍(dystonia)是主动肌与拮抗肌收缩不协调或过度收缩引起的以肌张力异常的动作和 姿势为特征的运动障碍综合征,具有不自主性和持续性的特点。依据病因可分为原发性和继发性。肌张力障碍的发病原因是什么呢? 原发性肌张力障碍多为散发,少数有家族史,呈常染色体显性或隐性遗传,或X染色体连锁遗传,最多见于7~15岁儿童或少年。常染色体显性遗传的原发性扭转痉挛绝大部分是由定位在9q32-34的DYTl基因突变所致,外显率为30%~50%。多巴反应性肌张力障碍也是常染色体显性遗传,为三磷酸鸟苷环化水解酶-1(GCH-1)基因突变所致。有研究证实,外周创伤可诱发原发性肌张力障碍基因携带者发生肌张力障碍,如口-下颌肌张力障碍,病前有发生面部或牙损伤史。另外,过度作用一侧肢体也可诱发肌张力障碍。如各种职业性的肌张力障碍,书写痉挛、打字员痉挛、乐器演奏家和运动员肢体痉挛等,其外周因素常被认为是主要作用。故推测其病因是由于脊髓运动环路的重组或脊髓水平以

上运动感觉联系的改变导致基底节功能改变所致。 继发性(症状性)肌张力障碍指凡是累及新纹状体、旧纹状体、丘脑、蓝斑、脑干网状结构等处的病变,均可引发肌张力障碍的症状出现,如肝豆状核变性、核黄疸、神经节苷脂沉积症、苍白球黑质色素变性、进行性核上性眼肌麻痹、双侧基底节钙化、甲状旁腺功能低下、中毒、脑血管病变、脑外伤、脑炎、脑裂畸形、药物诱发(L-DOPA、酚噻嗪类、丁酰苯类、胃复安、化疗药物)等。 肌张力障碍这是一种危害性比较大的疾病,所以还是要做好疾病的预防。有遗传背景的疾病,预防措施包括避免近亲结婚,推行遗传咨询、携带者基因检测及产前诊断等。早期诊断、早期治疗、加强临床护理,对改善患者的生活质量有重要意义


发作性运动诱发性运动障碍 发作性运动诱发性运动障碍(Paroxysmal Kinesigenit Dyskinesia,PKD)又称发作性运动诱发性舞蹈手足徐动症,由Kertesz(1967)首先报道并命名,是发作性运动障碍中最多见的一种类型,以静止状态下突然随意运动诱发短暂、多变的运动异常为特征。PKD可为遗传性或散发性,有遗传家族史的病例约占60%,遗传方式大多为常染色体显性遗传,有外显不全现象。致病基因定位于 16p11.2-q12.1、16p11.2-q11.2和16q13-q22.1,这种基因定位的不重叠,提示PKD可能存在遗传异质性。PKD虽已有初步的基因定位,但迄今为止PKD的致病基因尚未知。具发病机制不明,Menkes(1995)认为PKD是介于运动障碍与癫痢之间的一类疾病,目前倾向于是—种离子通道病,认为本病与癫痫可能有共同的生物学基础和离子通道缺陷,其病理生理机制之一很可能与Na+通道缺陷有关。 PKD起病于儿童和青少年期,发病年龄从4个月至57岁,多在6~16岁,以男性多见,男女之比为(2~4):1。发作前少数患者可有感觉先兆,如受累部位肢体发麻、发凉、发紧等。发作常由突然的动作触发,如起立、转身、迈步、举手等,也可由惊吓、恐惧、精神紧张、过度换气等诱发。发作时患者表现为肢体和躯干的肌张力不全、舞蹈、手足徐动、投掷样动作等多种锥体外系症状。症状可累及单肢、偏身,也可为双侧交替或同时出现,当面部和下颁肌肉受累时,可出现构音障碍。发作时间短暂,一般持续数秒,80%以上的病例发作持续时间短于1min,很少超过5min。发作时无意识障碍,停止动作或减慢动作常可终止发作。发作次数不定,1年数次,1个月数次或1日数次,呈病初发作次数少,至青春期发作次数增多,再随年龄增长而发作逐渐减少或停止。 发作可以使患者丧失活动能力,干扰其行走、学习、工作和日常活动。发作间期神经系统检查正常,发作时脑电图检查80%未见痫样放电。SPECT检查在发作时可见基底节区血流灌注增强,说明本病在阵发性发作时有基底节区功能增强现象。Bmno等在综合分析121例PKD后,提出PKD新的诊断标准为:特定的触发因素(如突然的运动),短暂的发作持续时间(<1min),发作时无意识障碍和疼痛,抗癫痫药物治疗有效,排除其他器质性疾病,起病年龄为1~20岁(有家族史的病例不受此限)。本病虽非癫痫,但绝大部分患者服用卡马西平、苯巴比妥、苯妥英钠、丙戊酸、托吡酯、拉莫三嗪等抗癫痫药物均能控制发作,缘于阻滞钠离子通道作用。 Familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia 家族性运动诱发运动障碍疾病特征 Familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (referred to as familial PKD in this entry) is characterized by unilateral or bilateral involuntary movements precipitated by other sudden movements such as standing up from a sitting position, being startled, or changes in velocity; attacks include combinations of dystonia, choreoathetosis, and ballism, are


《中国焦虑障碍防治指南》 焦虑障碍具有慢性发作性病程,需要全病程防治。适当的药物治疗有肯定疗效,但心理治疗的作用和地位同样不容忽视。应在病程不同阶段,采用以人为本的不同措施,并考虑我国国情及社会经济发展水平和相应卫生经济学原则。 指南分总论、惊恐障碍(PD)、广泛性焦虑障碍(GAD)和社交焦虑障碍(SAD)4 章节。总论包含焦虑障碍的概念、流行病学及防治现状、危险因素、临床评估及诊断分类、治疗(药物和心理)、人群防治、指南推广和实施等内容。各论包含了上述3个焦虑障碍亚型的概述、临床评估、诊断分类、各亚型临床表现及规范化治疗程序等。该指南还附有3个诊断系统的诊断标准、10余种常用焦虑障碍的评估量表 及3份焦虑亚型治疗的循证资料。 《焦虑障碍防治指南》:中国精神障碍防治指南丛书 目录 1 焦虑障碍概论 1.1 焦虑障碍的概念 1.2 焦虑障碍的流行病学及防治现状 1.2.1 焦虑障碍的流行病学 1.2.2 我国焦虑障碍防治现状 1.3 焦虑障碍的危险因素 1.4 焦虑障碍的临床评估和诊断分类 1.4.1 临床评估

1.4.2 焦虑障碍的诊断和鉴别诊断 1.5 焦虑障碍的治疗 1.5.1 焦虑障碍的治疗目标 1.5.2 焦虑障碍的药物治疗 1.5.3 焦虑障碍的心理治疗 1.5.4 电痉挛疗法 1.6 特殊人群的焦虑障碍 1.6.1 儿童青少年焦虑障碍 1.6.2 老年焦虑障碍 1.6.3 妊娠期、围生期和哺乳期妇女焦虑障碍1.6.4 焦虑与躯体疾病的共病 1.6.5 惊恐障碍的共病问题 1.6.6 广泛性焦虑障碍的共病问题 1.6.7 社交焦虑障碍的共病问题 1.7 焦虑障碍的人群防治 1.8 《焦虑障碍防治指南》的推广和实施 2 惊恐障碍

DBS 治疗肌张力障碍

DBS 如何治疗肌张力障碍(综述) 丁香园作者:幸福的味道 肌张力障碍是临床一种复杂的运动障碍性疾病,许多患者采用药物治疗和手术治疗效果仍然不佳。脑深部电刺激术作为功能性外科手术的一种,越来越多地应用于药物难治性运动障碍疾病的治疗中。近期 JAMA Neurology 杂志发表了一篇综述,回顾了采用 DBS 治疗肌张力障碍的最新进展。 简介 肌张力障碍是一种以持续性或间断性肌肉收缩导致异常运动和/或姿势的一种神经系统疾病。目前治疗药物包括抗胆碱能药物、多巴胺、苯二氮卓类、四苯喹嗪、巴氯芬等。针对靶点肌肉的肉毒毒素注射也可缓解症状。外科干预手段包括针对严重颈部肌张力障碍的神经根切断术,针对更广泛性肌张力障碍的丘脑和基底节消融术。 脑深部电刺激术(DBS)已经成为药物难治性扭转性肌张力障碍(扭转痉挛)的外科干预方法之一,其优点包括刺激效应可逆,可根据需要进行调节,并且安全性相对较好。2003 年美国 FDA 批准了 DBS 在原发性全身性、节段性或颈部肌张力障碍的治疗。 选择患者 考虑到疾病的异质性,以及不同类型的肌张力障碍对刺激的反应各异,DBS 治疗患者的选择十分复杂。目前 DBS 仅被批准用于原发性全身性、节段性或颈部肌张力障碍,其他类型的肌张力障碍采用 DBS 治疗均为适应证外使用。 对考虑采用 DBS 治疗的患者应进行以下几方面的评估:(1)排除对无创治疗效果较好的患者;(2)明确预测刺激治疗阳性和阴性反应的相关因素。需进行左旋多巴试验排除左旋多巴反应性肌张力障碍。对肉毒毒素治疗效果不佳的患者需再次确认其治疗靶点和剂量是否合适。心因性肌张力障碍患者通常药物治疗反应较差,应转诊进行 DBS 治疗。 评估患者骨骼畸形、痉挛以及是否存在脊髓病变十分重要,这些均可减少其对 DBS 的反应。术前检查还包括核磁共振检查,以排除可能导致继发性肌张力障碍的结构异常。最后,还需要对精神症状或认知功能障碍进行筛选。 进行 DBS 手术治疗的合适时间仍是一个有争议的问题。一般来说,一旦确定患者对内科治疗无效就可考虑进行 DBS 手术,且需在复杂骨骼畸形或颈部脊髓病变出现之前就进行手术。尽管 2011 年 MDS 不推荐早期进行手术干预,但许多证据显示越早干预,预后越好,尤其是由于 DYT1 基因突变导致的全身性肌张力障碍。 手术过程 DBS 装置包括 3 个主要部分:刺激电极、延长电线以及程控脉冲信号发生器(PG)(图 1)。该装置的植入包括 2 个阶段,第一个阶段,立体定向引导下,在特定的治疗靶点植入单侧或双侧电极。最常用的靶点为内侧苍白球(GPi),其他靶点还有下丘脑核团。第二个阶段,可能在同一天或几天后进行,即将 PG 植入前胸壁或腹壁皮下,并通过延长电线与刺激电极相连。


肌张力障碍锁定 本词条由好大夫在线提供内容并参与编辑。 王玉平(主任医师)首都医科大学宣武医院神经内科 卫华(副主任医师)首都医科大学宣武医院神经内科 肌张力障碍(dystonia)是主动肌与拮抗肌收缩不协调或过度收缩引起的以肌张力异常的动作和姿势为特征的运动障碍综合征,具有不自主性和持续性的特点。依据病因可分为原发性和继发性。原发性肌张力障碍与遗传有关。继发性肌张力障碍包括一大组疾病,有的是遗传性疾病(如肝豆状核变性,亨廷顿舞蹈病,神经节苷脂病等),有的是由外源性因素引起的(如围生期损伤、感染、神经安定药物)。 西医学名肌张力障碍英文名称dystonia 所属科室内科- 神经内科主要病因遗传因素 目录 1 疾病分类 2 病因及发病机制 3 临床表现 ?扭转痉挛 ?痉挛性斜颈 ?Meige综合征 ?手足徐动症 ?书写痉挛 4 诊断及鉴别诊断 ?诊断 ?鉴别诊断 5 疾病治疗 ?药物治疗 ?注射A型肉毒毒素 ?手术 6 疾病预后 7 疾病预防 疾病分类 依据肌张力障碍的发生部位,可分为局限性、节段性、偏身性和全身性。一般而言,发病年龄越早,症状可能越严重,波及身体其他部位的可能性也越大。发病年龄越大,肌张力障碍越可能保持其局灶性。局限性肌张力障碍指肌张力障碍只影响到躯体的一部分,如痉挛性斜颈、书写痉挛、眼睑痉挛、口-下颌肌张力障碍等。节段性肌张力障碍累及一个以上相邻部位,如Meige综合征(眼、口和下颌),一侧上肢加颈部,双侧下肢等。累及一侧身体时称偏侧肌张力障碍,一般由对侧大脑半球病变所致。全身性肌张力障碍,累及至少一个节段,加上一个以上其他部位。 病因及发病机制 原发性肌张力障碍多为散发,少数有家族史,呈常染色体显性或隐性遗传,或X染色体连锁遗传,最多见于7~15岁儿童或少年。常染色体显性遗传的原发性扭转痉挛绝大部分是由定位在9q32-34的DYTl基因突变所致,外显率为30%~50%。多巴反应性肌张力障碍也是常染色体显性遗传,为三磷酸鸟苷环化水解酶-1(GCH-1)基因突变所致。在菲律宾Paray岛,有一种肌张力障碍-帕金森综合征,呈X-连锁隐性遗传。家族性局限性肌张力障碍,通常为常染色体显性遗传,外显率不完全。 有研究证实,外周创伤可诱发原发性肌张力障碍基因携带者发生肌张力障碍,如口-下颌肌


【肌张力障碍的分类和分型】 目前肌张力障碍可根据发病年龄、临床表现、病因、遗传基础、药物反应等因素综合分类,临床最常用如下分型。 (一)根据发病年龄分型 1. 早发型 ≤26岁,一般先出现下肢或上肢的症状,常常进展累及身体其他部位。 2. 晚发型 >26岁,症状常先累及颜面、咽颈或上肢肌肉,倾向于保持其局灶性或有限地累及邻近肌肉。 (二)根据症状分布分型 1. 局灶型肌张力障碍(focal dystonia) 单一部位肌群受累,如眼睑痉挛、书写痉挛、痉挛性构音障碍、痉挛性斜颈等。 2. 节段型肌张力障碍(segmental dystonia) 2个或2个以上相邻部位肌群受累,如颅颈肌张力障碍(Meige综合征)、轴性肌张力障碍等。

3. 多灶型肌张力障碍(multifocal dystonia) 2个以上非相邻部位肌群受累。 4. 全身型肌张力障碍(generalized dystonia) 下肢与其他任何节段型肌张力障碍的组合,如扭转痉挛。 5. 偏身型肌张力障碍(hemi-dystonia) 半侧身体受累,一般都是继发性肌张力障碍,常为对侧半球、尤其是基底节损害所致。 (三)根据病因分型 1. 原发性或特发性肌张力障碍是临床上仅有的异常表现,没有已知病因或其他遗传变性病,如DYT-1、DYT-2、DYT-4、DYT-6、DYT-7、DYT-13型肌张力障碍。 2. 肌张力障碍叠加肌张力障碍是主要的临床表现之一,但与其他的运动障碍疾病有关,没有神经变性病的证据,如DYT-3、DYT-5、DYT-11、DYT-12、DYT-14、DYT-15型肌张力障碍。 3. 遗传变性病肌张力障碍是主要的临床表现之一,伴有一种遗传变性病的其他特征,如Wilson病、脊髓小脑性共济失调、亨廷顿舞蹈病、帕金森综合征等。 4. 发作性肌张力障碍表现为突然出现且反复发作的运动障碍,发作间期表现正常。


肌张力障碍 疾病概述 肌张力障碍是肌肉过度收缩导致身体一部分或全部出现持续性扭转或姿势 异常为主要表现的一组综合征。其特点是主动肌和拮抗肌同时收缩,运动时症状加剧,严重的病人安静时也出现肌肉的异常活动。 疾病病因 特发性扭转性肌张力障碍迄今病因不明,可能与遗传有关,可为常染色体显性(30%-40%外显率)、常染色体隐性或X连锁隐蔽形成遗传,显性遗传的缺损基因DYT1已定位于9号常染色体长臂9q32-34,编码一种ATP结合蛋白扭转蛋白A,有些病例可发生在散发基础上。环境因素如创伤或高劳等可诱发特发性肌张力障碍基因携带者发病,如口-下颌肌张力障碍病前有面部或牙损伤史,一侧肢体过劳可诱发肌张力障碍如书写痉挛、打字员痉挛和运动员肢体痉挛等。继发性肌张力障碍是纹状体、丘脑、蓝斑、脑干网状结构等病变所致,如肝豆状核变性、核黄疸、神经节苷脂沉积症、苍白球黑质红核色素变性、进行性核上性麻痹、特发性基底节钙化、甲状旁腺功能低下、中毒、脑血管病变、脑外伤、脑炎、药物(左旋多巴、酚噻嗪类、丁酰苯类、胃复安)诱发等。 病理生理 特发性扭转痉挛可见非特异性病理改变,包括壳核、丘脑及尾状核小神经元变性,基底节脂质及脂色素增多。继发性扭转痉挛病理学特征随原发病不同而异;痉挛性斜颈、Meige综合征、书写痉挛和职业性痉挛等局限性肌张力障碍病理上无特意性改变。 临床分型 临床上肌张力障碍可以表现为全身性或局灶性,后者包括眼睑痉挛、Meige综合征、口舌综合征、痉挛性斜颈、书写痉挛以及其他节段性肌张力障碍。根据原因可以分为: (1)原发性肌张力障碍:该类病人没有明确的中枢神经系统构造异常,表现为全身性异常如特发性扭转痉挛或局灶性异常如书写痉挛、眼睑痉挛和痉挛性


原发性肌张力障碍的病因迄今不明,认为可能与遗传有关,呈常染色体显性遗传(AD)、常染色体隐性遗传(AR)或X染色体连锁隐性遗传。遗传的原发性扭转痉挛大多由于DYT1基因突变所致,基因定位于9q32~34。另外在6个具有不同单倍体型的患者中均发现有一GAG缺失,不论是否是Ashkenazi犹太人,典型早期起病的ITD大多是由于此种GAG缺失引起。 环境因素如创伤或过度劳累等可诱发原发性肌张力障碍的基因携带者发病,如口‐下颌肌张力障碍病可有面部或牙齿损伤史;一侧肢体的过度劳累也可诱发肌张力障碍,如书写痉挛、打字员痉挛、乐器演奏家和运动员肢体痉挛等。ITD的发病机制很可能是由于某种原因引起了脑内一些神经递质的传导及代谢方面的障碍,导致皮质及皮质下结构对运动系统的抑制减弱而致病。几项研究均证明改变了的多巴胺能对基底核的输入可导致肌张力障碍,典型例子为多巴反应性肌张力障碍(DRD,IDT5),但也有部分ITD患者对多巴胺没有反应,故推测是否由于多巴胺释放缺陷多于多巴的合成障碍。进一步了解DYT1基因新的ATP结合蛋白的作用,将有可能从基底核环路方面来阐明ITD的发病机制。 ITD一般没有明显的病理改变,一些病例研究发现蓝斑、黑质致密层、脑桥脚核和背缝神经核有病理改变,但其他病例并没有发现类似的改变。据McNaught等(2004)的研究,在4个(男3女1,33~86岁)的DYT1‐阳性患者以及4个对照病例的尸检中用泛素‐蛋白结合体等多重抗体作为标记,进行染色,结果发现在中脑的神经元、脑桥网状系统、中脑水管周围灰质等处有蛋白沉积和包涵体,包涵体在核周明显,其内未见‐醩ynuclein。受累均为胆碱能神经元,而多巴胺能、五羟色胺能神经元以及星形细胞均未累及。脑部其他部位如皮质、纹状体、海马、黑质致密带等都未发现有这些改变。4名对照组均未见到这些病理改变。 作者的结论是他们的研究提出了这样的可能性:DYT1型肌张力障碍是一种蛋白结构疾病,在脑干特别是在大脑脚、蓝斑、中脑水管周围灰质等的细胞核内所见表明了这就是DYT1型肌张力障碍的病理改变。这是有关蛋白在肌张力障碍病例聚集的首个报道。然而,Holton 等(2008)对6例肌张力障碍(男2女4,眼睑痉挛2例;轴性肌张力障碍1例;颈肌张力障碍3例)和对照4例,在死后剖检中进行了免疫组织化学和神经病理学检查,在中脑神经元内并未发现上述作者提到的ubiquitin,torsinA,laminA/C或p62阳性包涵体,也无证据表明纹状体间隔内有神经元丢失。作者认为他们的研究进一步肯定以前某些关于成人起病的原发性肌张力障碍病例并无确定的结构异常,大多数病例显示正常的脑结构。


肌张力障碍的临床特点及诊治要点 万新年 关键词:张力失调;临床;治疗 中图分类号:R741.04 文献标识码:C 文章编号:1006—2963(2010)02—0167-03 作者单位:100730中国医学科学院北京协和医院神经科通讯作者:万新年 肌张力障碍(dystonia)是一种病理生理复杂、 机制未明的运动障碍病,既往因缺乏有效治疗手段 而常被忽视。国外有关调查结果显示原发性肌张 力障碍的患病率约为370/100万,据此推算,世界 约有超过300万人罹患该病,同时存在认识不足造 成的漏诊、误诊,实际患病人数可能更多。继发性 肌张力障碍患者人数更难统计,如约1/3的脑瘫儿 童可有肌张力障碍,且某些患儿肌张力障碍是运动 障碍的主要表现;约i/3的帕金森病可在病程中伴 有或某个阶段(早期或治疗后)出现肌张力障碍。 原发性肌张力障碍与诸多遗传变异有关。痉 挛性斜颈和眼睑痉挛的发病可能与多巴胺转运体 和/或D5受体的基因多态性有关,关于遗传易感 性或保护性机制的研究近来颇受关注。一般认为,

皮质一纹状体一苍白球一皮质运动环路的功能失调可能在原发性肌张力障碍的病理生理中起主要作用,至少部分肌张力障碍是易感者神经元对某些刺激 或负荷诱发的蛋白结构变化不能适时反应的结果。目前应用电生理、生化、人类基因和脑功能显 像技术对肌张力障碍的病理生理机制有了更多认识,拓展了肌张力障碍系基底节功能异常所致的传统观念,有助于阐明肌张力障碍神经功能紊乱的病理机制,为研究肌张力障碍治疗的新方法提供了基础。 l肌张力障碍的临床特点 肌张力障碍是一种不自主、持续性肌肉收缩引 起的扭曲、重复运动或姿势异常的综合征。如仅从中文名称字面理解容易产生歧义,可将此病误解为一般意义上的肌张力异常,如肌张力增高(如锥体 束损害时出现的痉挛状态)或减低。实际上dystonia 用于疾病诊断的术语是特指一种具有特殊表现 形式的不自主运动,患者多以异常的表情、姿势或不自主的变换动作为突出表现。 肌张力障碍的临床表现取决于受累肌肉的部 位、收缩强度和不同肌肉的组合。轻度的肌张力障碍可能仅表现为基本正常的动作而略有夸张;稍重

肌张力障碍翻译 - 副本

第135章局限性手部肌张力障碍 提纲 历史 病因 临床表现 诊断 治疗 总结 本章要点: 目前公认手部肌张力障碍为原发疾病,病因不明,为多因素致病。 手部肌张力障碍包括手指及腕部的姿势异常。由于主动肌和拮抗肌同时协同收缩异常,使得手指和腕关节不自主的呈扭转姿态。这个病的发病很隐匿,可能表现为弹奏乐器时的错音,做事是错误增加,异常疲劳或感觉无力,在做某些动作时一个或者多个手指不自主地活动范围过度。 患者治疗的目的在于保持手的正常形态,增强感受-运功反馈的精确性,保证手部运动的效率和效果。 治疗手部肌张力障碍需要综合多学科方法。这些方法包括患者教育、心理管理、健康管理、良好的力学环境、合理的人体工学环境、药物治疗(比如肉毒素)、社会支持、脑功能训练,有时候还需要脑部刺激。 由于工作需要,人们经常不断重复某个动作。比如:打字、演奏乐器和写字等。在这些工作中,人们经常遭受反复的疲劳损伤,使得创伤障碍不断积累。为了解决这个问题,可以在工作中抽时间休息,或者缩短工作时间、减轻劳动强度、改善工作本身或者环境的人体工程学特性。如果人体工程学环境长时间不能得到改善,将可能罹患手部肌张力障碍,将引起慢性疼痛,或者导致虽然不痛但可导致功能丧失的不自主运动(职业性手痉挛,比如演奏家、键盘手、作家、特殊工种)。这些情况是由于内在因素和外在因素长期积累导致的。本章总结了此病的历史、病因、诊断和治疗方面的内容。本章的目的有:(1)提高大家对此病的认识(2)鼓励医生对患者进行健康教育以最大程度预防此病(3)让医生能早期诊断此病(4)提倡多学科联合干预提供患者支持并促进康复(5)鼓励医生及理疗师对此病进行深入研究,最大程度恢复患者功能,以使患者能够自理(6)激励临床工作者对此病进行基础研究,明确其病因,并改进治疗,提高疗效。 历史 肌张力障碍医学研究基金(Dystonia Medical Research Fundation)下属的特别学术委员会(Ad hoc committe)为肌张力障碍下了定义:肌张力障碍是一种综合征,由于肌肉持久反复的不协调收缩,导致关节扭转和肢体的姿势异常1。肌张力障碍累及到身体的某个具体部位,就以肢体部位命名。如果肌张力障碍仅仅在做某个特定在动作是才发生,就叫做动作特异性肌张力障碍或者运动性肌张力障碍2。Fahn1和他的团队补充到,在运动性肌张力


肌张力障碍诊断 根据病史、不自主运动和(或)异常姿势的特征性表现和部位等,症状诊断通常不难,但需与其他类似不自主运动症状鉴别。 肌张力障碍鉴别诊断 (1) 扭转痉挛应与舞蹈症、僵人综合征(stiff-man syndrome)鉴别:扭转痉挛与舞蹈症的鉴别要点是舞蹈症的不自主运动速度快、运动模式变幻莫测、无持续性姿势异常,并伴肌张力降低,而扭转痉挛的不自主运动速度慢、运动模式相对固定、有持续性姿势异常,并伴肌张力增高。僵人综合征表现为发作性躯干肌(颈脊旁肌和腹肌)和四肢近端肌紧张、僵硬和强直,而面肌和肢体远端肌常不受累,僵硬可明显限制患者的主动运动,且常伴有疼痛,肌电图检查在休息和肌肉放松时均可出现持续运动单位电活动,易与肌张力障碍区别。 (2) 痉挛性斜颈需与头部震颤、先天性斜颈相鉴别:先天性斜颈发病年龄早,可因胸锁乳突肌血肿后纤维化,颈椎的先天缺如或融合,颈肌肌炎、颈淋巴结炎及眼肌麻痹(如上斜肌麻痹)等所引起。因痉挛性斜颈常会出现阵发性不自主痉挛,类似头部震颤,需与原发性震颤、帕金森病相鉴别。 (3) Meige综合征应与颞下关节综合征、下颌错位咬合、面肌痉挛、神经症相鉴别:面肌痉挛表现为一侧面肌和眼睑的抽搐样表现,不伴有口-下颌的不随意运动。 (4) 在明确肌张力障碍诊断后要尽量寻找病因:原发性肌张力障碍除可伴有震颤外,一般无其他阳性神经症状和体征。起病时即为静止性肌张力障碍、较早出现持续的姿势异常、语言功能早期受累、起病突然、进展迅速以及偏侧肌张力障碍均提示为继发性,应积极寻找病因。若伴有其他神经系统症状和体征,如肌痉挛、痴呆、小脑症状、视网膜改变、肌萎缩和感觉症状等,也提示继发性肌张力障碍。 继发性肌张力障碍的筛查手段包括:头颅CT或MRI(排除脑部器质性损害)、颈部MRI(排除脊髓病变所致颈部肌张力障碍)、血细胞涂片(排除神经-棘红细胞增多症)、代谢筛查(排


384 ?继续教育? 肌张力障碍的研究现状和未来展望 陈生弟“周海燕‘ 在运动障碍性疾病中,肌张力障碍(dystonia)是仅次于帕金森病(Parkinson’8disease,PD)的第二大常见病。然而与帕金森病相比,无论是发病机制的阐述还是治疗策略的应对,在现阶段肌张力障碍都望尘莫及。肌张力障碍的临床表现变幻多端,病因纷繁复杂,病理生理机制迷雾重重,诊断犹如深宫探密,而治疗却往往令人感叹“黔驴技穷”。 肌张力障碍一词由Oppenheim于1911年首创,用于强调疾病导致的变化的肌张力和反复发生的肌肉痉挛,因此这一疾病最初的命名为变形性肌张力障碍(dystoniamu¥culorumdefor-roans)。后随着对疾病表征的进一步认识,改称为原发性扭转性肌张力障碍(primarytorsiondystonia)。1984年国际肌张力障碍医学研究基金会顾问委员会提出了现今被广泛认同的肌张力障碍的定义:一种不自主、持续性肌肉收缩引起的扭曲、重复运动或姿势异常的综合征。 由于疾病临床表现的多样性,识别肌张力障碍需要丰富的临床经验。许多普通内科医生不熟悉肌张力障碍,他们经常将它与痉挛或强直相混淆,有时甚至误诊为心理性疾病。患者通常几经波折,咨询数位医生后才能得到正确诊断。即使是神经科专科医生,如果没有足够的临床经验,也容易出现误诊。例如将多巴反应性肌张力障碍(dopa.responsivedystonia。DRD)误诊为脑性瘫痪,将眼睑痉挛误诊为千眼症、重症肌无力,将痉挛性斜颈误诊为颈肌劳损、颈椎病。而经验丰富的神经科医生。有时也需要借助电生理辅助手段来鉴别肌张力障碍与肌阵挛或震颤。 对这一疾病临床识别的困难自然影响了该病的研究进展,而且与帕金森病不同,肌张力障碍由于症状变幻多端,其严重程度极难用合适的指标来衡量,至今没有一个普遍认同的评分量表来评价它的严重程度。而这不仅妨碍了临床医生之间有效的交流。还妨碍了药物临床试验的有效性评估,成为治疗进展的一大障碍。 肌张力障碍研究进展的相对迟缓,还在于其病因的复杂性。根据病因分型,肌张力障碍通常分为原发性或特发性、肌张力障碍叠加综合征、遗传变性病、发作性肌张力障碍、继发性或症状性这五大类。目前为止,原发性肌张力障碍的基因型已定位6种,包括DYT1、DYT2、DYT4、DYT6、DYT7和DYT13。肌张力障碍叠加综合征的基因型已定位5种,包括DYT5、DYTll、DYT12、DYT14和DYT15。发作性肌张力障碍的基因型已定位3种,包括DYT8、DYT9和DYTl0。此外DYT3基因型导致x性连锁隐性遗传性肌张力障碍帕金森综合征(dystoniaparkinson-ism)。因此仅就与遗传有关的肌张力障碍而言,其病因和发病机制已经是一个非常庞大的家族。这15种基因型中,目前已经被克隆出的致病基因也就6种,分别为DYTl的TorsinA基因,DYT3的TAFI基因,DYT5的GCHl和TH基因,DYT8的MR-I基因,DYTlI的SGCE基因和DYT12的ATPlA3基因。而对 ?上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院神经科,上海交通大学医学院神经病学研究所(上海200025) ?通讯作者(E-mail:chen_sd@medmail.corn.cn)这6种致病基因所编码的蛋白功能的解析目前还处在初级阶段‘…3。 借鉴帕金森病发病机制的研究规律,我们可以设想这些不同的致病基因在功能上极有可能存在殊途同归的契合点,各种不同表型的肌张力障碍也存在病理生理机制上的共通之路。而最近又有证据提示,不仅家族性肌张力障碍具有遗传基础,很可能许多明显散发性的病例也有一个遗传基础¨j。从这点上讲,继续开拓遗传因素的研究和深入探讨已知致病基因的功能对整个庞大的肌张力障碍家族的病理生理机制的阐明和实现新的治疗靶点都具有莫大的意义,尽管这确实是个浩瀚的工程。 病因的繁杂在一定程度上决定了其病理生理机制的复杂性。目前为止主要存在3种颇有说服力的假说H1。第一种说法认为,肌张力障碍是由于不同层次的中枢神经系统功能失抑制导致机体的过度运动,包括脑干、基底节、运动皮层、运动辅助区、小脑等。苍白球切除术和深部脑刺激(DBS)对肌张力障碍的有效治疗证实了基底节存在输出异常。PET和功能MRI(fM.RI)也显示在DYTl基因携带者中,其运动皮层、运动辅助区、小脑、基底节都存在异常。经颅磁刺激研究显示肌张力障碍患者皮层运动神经元的异常兴奋,导致其皮层抑制减弱。以E这些异常环节都会导致对抗肌群的反向抑制减弱,从而使主动肌和拮抗肌同时收缩,造成肌张力障碍的发生。但对于基底节传出如何影响皮层抑制功能目前还不清楚。基底节传出的异常可能是结构性病灶,也可能是多巴胺(dopamine,DA)缺陷、DA传递异常造成呤1。另一种说法认为,肌张力障碍患者的丘系感觉传导路径存在错误的加工过程,导致感觉运动整合异常。这种假说可以从许多临床表现上寻得证据:例如在一些肌张力障碍患者,如果轻触受累躯体就可以减轻症状,这被称为“感觉诡计”(sen—sorytrick)。又如一些外周神经的损伤造成感觉传人改变而导致肌张力障碍。最后一种说法认为,肌张力障碍患者的神经塑造(neuroplasticity)机制存在异常。在这种易感状态下。一些环境因素如重复训练或外周神经系统损伤会触发异常的错误适应的可塑性(abnormalmaladaptiveplasticity),从而导致明显的肌张力障碍。 尽管这3种说法各有依据,但真正细节的机制还未阐明;而它们之间究竟是各自为政,还是藕断丝连、相互关联,或者以哪种为主导,目前为止还都是未知。但对它们的阐述和探讨必然会为肌张力障碍的治疗确椤新的靶点,推进肌张力障碍的治疗进展。 目前肌张力障碍的治疗有多种方法,包括口服药物治疗、肉毒毒素(botulinumtoxin,BTX)治疗、鞘内注射巴氯芬以及神经外科治疗。但大部分治疗都是对症不对因,其根本原冈还在于绝大部分肌张力障碍的病因尚未明确。而且尽管口服药物种类较多,既有左旋多巴制剂的多巴胺能治疗,安坦等抗胆碱能治疗,也有氟哌啶醇、丁苯那嗪等抗多巴胺能治疗,巴氯芬等肌松剂治疗和卡马西平、苯二氮卓类等治疗,但除了DRD,目前还未有充分的循证医学证据证实各种药物对其他类型肌张力障碍治疗的有效性‘6。71。 20世纪80年代以来,由于BTX的应用,肌张力障碍的症状性治疗尤其是局灶性肌张力障碍得到大幅度的改善¨1。在强大的临床试验证据支持下,美国FDA已批准BTX治疗眼睑痉挛、偏侧面肌痉挛和颈部肌张力障碍。尽管BTX已经获得了广泛的临床应用,但目前大量的研究还是集中在颈部肌张力障碍……’,而其他形式的局灶性肌张力障碍研究资料甚少。人群中的患病率较低町能是其中的原因之一,但肌张力障碍严重程度的评估困难显然是最大的研究障碍。例如口下颌肌张力障碍症状的个 万方数据


肌张力障碍临床诊断治疗指南 【概述】 肌张力障碍(dystonia)是主动肌与拮抗肌收缩不协调或过 度收缩引起的以肌张力异常动作和姿势为特征的运动障碍 性疾病。依据病因分为特发性和继发性;根据肌张力障碍的部位分为全身性、局限性、节段性、偏侧性和多发性;按发病年龄可分为儿童型和成人型。 【临床表现】 (一)扭转痉挛(torsiorl spasm) 是全身性扭转性肌张力障碍(torsiorl dystc)nia),临床以四肢、躯干或全身剧烈不随意扭转动作和姿势异常为特征。可分为: 1.特发性扭转性肌张力障碍儿童期起病的肌张力障碍通常有家族史,出生及发育史正常,多为特发性。症状常自一侧或双侧下肢开始,逐渐进展至广泛不自主扭转运动和姿势异常,导致严重功能障碍。. 2.继发性扭转性肌张力障碍成年期起病的肌张力障碍多为散发,可查到病因。症状常自上肢或躯干开始,约20%的患者最终发展为全身性肌张力障碍,一般不发生严重致残。体检可见异常运动、姿势,如手臂过度前旋姿势伴屈腕及手指伸展,腿伸直和足跖屈内翻,躯干过屈或过伸等,以躯干为

轴扭转最具特征性;可出现扮鬼脸、痉挛性斜颈、睑痉挛、口一下颌肌张力障碍等,缺乏其他神经系统体征。 (二)局限性肌张力障碍 可为特发性扭转性肌张力障碍的某些特点孤立出现,如痉挛性斜颈、睑痉挛、口一下颌肌张力障碍、痉挛性发音困难(声带)和书写痉挛(一侧上肢)等。有家族史的患者可作为特发性扭转性肌张力障碍顿挫型,元家族史者可代表成年发病型的局部表现,但成人发病的局限性肌张力障碍也可有家族基础,为常染色体显性遗传,与18p31(DYT7)基因突变有关。1.痉挛性斜颈(spasmodic torticollis) 是胸锁乳突肌等颈部肌群阵发性不自主收缩引起颈部向一侧扭转,通常30~岁起病,女性较多。早期常为发作性,后期颈部持续偏向40.一侧。受累肌肉常有痛感,亦可见肌肉肥大,可因情绪激动而加重,头部得到支持时可减轻,睡眠时消失。2.Meigc:综合征主要累及眼肌和口、下颌肌肉,表现为睑痉挛和口一下颌肌张力障碍,二者都可作为孤立的局限性肌张力障碍出现,为Meige综合征不完全型,若二者合并出现为完全型。睑痉挛(blepllarospasril)表现为不自主眼睑闭合,痉挛持续数秒至数分钟。多为双眼,少数由单眼起病澌波及双眼,精神紧张、阅读、注视时加重,在讲话、唱歌、张口、咀嚼和笑时减轻,睡眠时消失。口一下颌肌张力障碍(oromandibular dystorlia)表现为不自主张口闭口、撅嘴


肉毒素能治疗肌张力障碍吗 肌张力障碍治疗目前状况与前景展望目前我国有肌张力障碍患者200余万,肌张力障碍目前仍属于难治性疾病,为此《2011年全国肌张力障碍治疗目前状况与前景展望》峰会于2月20日在北京隆重召开,此次会议汇聚了全国肌张力障碍的专家学者。专家云集京都,就目前肌张力障碍的状况,做出了分析与总结,展望肌张力障碍治疗的前景。 肌张力障碍治疗目前状况: 现在治疗肌张力障碍主要有,药物治疗、注射肉毒毒素A、肌肉离断术、神经离断术、脑组织损毁术、中枢型脑起搏器、分离型脑起搏器、周围型脑起搏器。 1. 药物治疗,全身性肌张力障碍,最常用的药物为大剂量抗胆碱能药物安坦、苯甲托品或多巴胺耗竭剂利血平,左旋多巴、卡马西平,但是药物只对极少数病例有效,对大多数肌张力障碍患者均无效。 2. 注射肉毒毒素A,应用精制肉毒毒素A作局部注射,对局灶性或节段性肌张力障碍,或对全身性肌张力障碍中症状特别严重的局部部位有一定效果,毒素注射进入受累及的肌肉后,能减弱不自主收缩的力度,对产生肌张力障碍的基本神经机制不起影响.肉毒毒素注射对眼睑痉挛与强直性发音障碍有效.剂量须高度个体化,但是注射肉毒毒素A一般情况下,最多有效6个月,只能间隔3-6个月注射一次,重复注射会使注射肉毒毒素A效果大大减弱,但不管怎样,注射肉毒毒素及是目前治疗肌张力障碍的主流方法,起主导地位。

3. 肌肉离断术,此手术为不可逆性手术,适用于肌张力极度增高,严重影响正常的基本生命活动,离断之后,肌肉失去原有功能,缓解一时症状。 4. 神经离断术,原理类似于肌肉离断术,离断神经以后,肌肉失去神经的支配和营养会慢慢萎缩,失去肌肉的功能。起到缓解症状的作用。 5. 中枢型脑起搏器,为治疗肌张力障碍权威治疗方法,即脑深部电刺激疗法(Deep Brain Stimulation),为治疗肌张力障碍提供了一种可以调节的可逆性手段。这种治疗方法利用一个类似于心脏起搏器的装置,向精确定位的脑深部核团输送电刺激。对这些部位进行刺激,可以控制运动功能的回路恢复相对正常。 6.分离型脑起搏器,为治疗肌张力障碍最新方法,分离型脑起搏器又称经颅磁电刺激术(TMES),即对大脑进行磁刺激和电刺激,使大脑异常电活动恢复正常,从而治疗肌张力障碍。肌张力障碍治疗前景展望:经过优缺点比较,专家一致认为,分离型脑起搏器治疗肌张力障碍最有前景。 分离型脑起搏器为什么能治疗肌张力障碍呢?为什么分离型脑起搏器能脱颖而出,又有怎么治疗奇迹呢? 分离型脑起搏器具备经颅磁刺激和经颅电刺激两大功能。 一、经颅磁刺激 将如此大剂量的磁直接作用于人体头颅从而治疗癫痫、帕金森、肌张力障碍等疾病在医学领域TMES首开先河,属重大发明具有里程碑式意义。磁为什么能治疗这类疾病它的作用机理是什么?这是一门新的学向,许多


目前肌张力障碍可根据发病年龄、临床表现、病因、遗传基础、药物反应等因素综合分类,临床最常用如下分型。 (一)根据发病年龄分型 1. 早发型 ≤26岁,一般先出现下肢或上肢的症状,常常进展累及身体其他部位。 2. 晚发型 >26岁,症状常先累及颜面、咽颈或上肢肌肉,倾向于保持其局灶性或有限地累及邻近肌肉。 (二)根据症状分布分型 1. 局灶型肌张力障碍(focal dystonia) 单一部位肌群受累,如眼睑痉挛、书写痉挛、痉挛性构音障碍、痉挛性斜颈等。 2. 节段型肌张力障碍(segmental dystonia) 2个或2个以上相邻部位肌群受累,如颅颈肌张力障碍(Meige综合征)、轴性肌张力障碍等。 3. 多灶型肌张力障碍(multifocal dystonia)

2个以上非相邻部位肌群受累。 4. 全身型肌张力障碍(generalized dystonia) 下肢与其他任何节段型肌张力障碍的组合,如扭转痉挛。 5. 偏身型肌张力障碍(hemi-dystonia) 半侧身体受累,一般都是继发性肌张力障碍,常为对侧半球、尤其是基底节损害所致。 (三)根据病因分型 1. 原发性或特发性肌张力障碍是临床上仅有的异常表现,没有已知病因或其他遗传变性病,如DYT-1、DYT-2、DYT-4、DYT-6、DYT-7、DYT-13型肌张力障碍。 2. 肌张力障碍叠加肌张力障碍是主要的临床表现之一,但与其他的运动障碍疾病有关,没有神经变性病的证据,如DYT-3、DYT-5、DYT-11、DYT-12、DYT-14、DYT-15型肌张力障碍。 3. 遗传变性病肌张力障碍是主要的临床表现之一,伴有一种遗传变性病的其他特征,如Wilson病、脊髓小脑性共济失调、亨廷顿舞蹈病、帕金森综合征等。 4. 发作性肌张力障碍表现为突然出现且反复发作的运动障碍,发作间期表现正常。根据诱发因素的不同分为3种主要形式:①发作性起动诱发的运动障碍 (PKD、DYT-9),由突然的动作诱发;②发作性过度运动诱发的运动障碍(PED、DYT-10),由跑步、游泳等持续运动诱发;③发作性非运动诱发的运动障碍(PNKD、DYT-8),可因饮用酒、茶、咖啡或饥饿、疲劳等诱发。


如对您有帮助,可购买打赏,谢谢 肌张力异常症状是什么 导语:一般来说肌张力异常和脑瘫有很大的关系,但是有时并不是脑瘫所引起的,正常的肌张力能帮助维持身体的协调性,不过肌张力异常会使身体出现运 一般来说肌张力异常和脑瘫有很大的关系,但是有时并不是脑瘫所引起的,正常的肌张力能帮助维持身体的协调性,不过肌张力异常会使身体出现运动障碍,下面介绍症状。 脑瘫儿常伴有肌张力异常,主要表现为肌张力增高、降低或动摇性。肌张力增高时肌肉较硬,被动运动时阻力增太,关节运动的范围缩小。肌张力降低表现为肌肉迟缓柔软,被动运动时阻力减退,关节运动的范围扩大。肌张力的动摇性指患儿安静时肌紧张完全正常,但在随意运动肌肉活动时,肌紧张明显增强,从低紧张到高紧张来回变化。 肌张力的发育过程表现为新生儿时期屈肌张力增高,随着月龄增长肌张力逐渐减低转为正常。所以一些不太严重的痉挛性脑瘫,在6个月以内肌张力增高并不明显,有时造成诊断困难。但一些严重的痉挛型脑瘫患儿仍可在6个月以内表现出肌张力增高。 痉挛性脑瘫肌张力增高表现为“折刀式”,但需注意在检查时如反复连续多次屈伸肢体,则"折刀"的感觉逐渐不太明显。手足徐动型在l岁以内往往无肌张力增高,随着年龄的增加而表现出来,常呈"齿轮状"或"铅管状"。强直型表现为"铅管状"肌张力增高。共济失调型肌张力不增高,肌张力低下型则表现为肌张力低下,关节活动范围增加,但腱反射活跃或亢进。 1、肌张力是安静状态下肌肉的紧张度,通过被动地屈曲、伸直、旋前、旋后肢体,了解其肌张力。小婴儿可握住其前臂摇晃手,根据手的活动范围了解上肢肌张力。测下肢肌张力还可握住小腿摇摆其足, 预防疾病常识分享,对您有帮助可购买打赏


肌张力障碍脑深部电刺激疗法中国专家共识 肌张力障碍是位列帕金森病、原发性震颤之后的第三大运动障碍疾病,致残率高并可严重影响患者的生命质量。传统肌张力障碍的定义为:一种不自主、持续性肌肉收缩引起的扭曲、重复运动或姿势异常的综合征。近年来,随着学界对疾病认识的深入,肌张力障碍的定义已更新为:一种由肌肉不自主间歇或持续性收缩所导致的异常重复运动和(或)异常姿势的运动障碍疾病;异常重复运动及异常姿势呈现扭曲样、模式化特点,可合并震颤;随意动作可诱发或加重不自主动作及异常姿势,伴有“溢出”肌肉的激活。肌张力障碍作为不自主运动的形式,还可伴有以下特征:不自主运动、动作特异性、缓解技巧或策略(感觉诡计)(sensory tricks or gestes antagonistes)、镜像肌张力障碍、零点、溢出或泛化、肌张力障碍性震颤。其治疗策略的制定主要依据病因学分类及临床特征。 以往,肌张力障碍根据起病年龄(早发型、晚发型)、症状分布(局灶型、节段型、多灶型、偏身型、全身型)以及病因(原发性或特发性、肌张力障碍叠加、遗传变性病、发作性肌张力障碍、继发性或症状性)进行临床分型。其中原发性肌张力障碍指不伴其他潜在病理改变的单纯型肌张力障碍;继发性指伴有已知其他神经系统疾病或损伤的肌张力障碍。由于该分类的局限性,2013年以后学界普遍接受以临床特征及病因两大主线为基础的新分类法。按临床特征分类包括:发病年龄(婴幼儿期、儿童

期、青少年期、成年早期、成年晚期)、症状分布(局灶型、节段型、多灶型、偏身型、全身型)、时间模式[包括疾病进程(稳定型、进展型)和变异性(持续型、动作特异型、发作型、日间波动型等)]、伴随症状(单纯型、复合型、复杂型)。按照病因学分类包括:神经系统病理性(有神经系统退行性病变证据、有结构性病变证据、无神经系统退行性病变或结构性病变证据)、遗传或获得性、特发性。 需要特别指出,现有的脑深部电刺激术(deep brain stimulation,DBS)治疗肌张力障碍的长期疗效和安全性高级别临床研究证据中,患者的纳入标准大多依据2013年之前的病因分类方法。为忠于原文献,在引用相关结果时,本共识沿用了传统分类方法。但是,在之后的适应证阐述中本共识采用新的分类方法进行说明。新分类中,临床特征表现为单一肌张力障碍伴或不伴震颤(单纯型)的遗传性或特发性肌张力障碍可认为等同于传统分类的“原发性肌张力障碍”。 DBS被认为可改善肌张力障碍患者的重复运动、异常姿势和慢性疼痛,提高患者的生命质量,对预防由于长期重复运动及姿势异常而继发的肌肉挛缩、肌腱关节畸形亦有作用。2003年,DBS疗法相继被欧盟以及美国食品与药物管理局(Food a n d Drug Administration,FDA)批准用于治疗肌张力障碍。2002年,我国首次将DBS疗法用于治疗肌张力障碍患者,并于2003年在美国立体定向及功能神经外科学会年会上报告。2016年,国家食品药品监督管理总局(China Food a n d Drug

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