When a man was walking by some elephants, he suddenly stopped He wondered why these huge animals were being held only by a small rope tied to their front legs. No chains, no cages. It was clear that the elephants could break the rope at any time, but for sonic reason, they did not. He saw a trainer nearby and asked why the animals just stood there and didn't try to get away. "Well," the trainer said, "when they were very young and much smaller, we used the same rope to keep them from running away. At that age, it's enough to hold them. As they grow up, they are conditioned to believe they cannot break tile rope. They believe it can still hold them, so they never try to break free."
The man was surprised. These animals could break flee whenever they wanted, but because they believed they couldn't, they were stuck right where they were.
How many of us go through life like the elephants-holding onto the belief that we cannot do something simply because we failed at it once before?
Failure is a part of learning. If we failed once, it doesn't mean we can never succeed. If we try again and again, maybe we will succeed one day. So don't be afraid of failure and keep on trying. （1）Why did the elephants never try to break the rope after they grew up?
A. Because they liked being tied.
B. Because they were too weak to break it.
C. Because they didn't want to break it.
D. Because they thought they couldn't break it.（2）The underlined word "stuck" in Paragraph 3 means" ".
（3）What does the writer want to tell us?
A. Elephants should be set flee.
B. Failure can help us succeed.
C. Never let failure stop you from trying again.
D. People should look after the elephants well.
（1）细节题。根据原文提到了 As they grow up, they are conditioned to believe they cannot break tile rope. They believe it can still hold them, so they never try to break free. 可知大象小时候被绑住，长大了以后依然认为绳子可以拴住他们，故选D。
（2）推断题。根据原文提到了 because they believed they couldn't, 可知他们认为自己已经被这根绳子困住了，故选B。
（3）主旨大意题。根据原文提到了 If we failed once, it doesn't mean we can never succeed. If we try again and again, maybe we will succeed one day. 可知作者想告诉我们永远不要被困难
The following are some tips for becoming a successful businessman by Michael Bloomberg. They are based on his experience of building a company from the ground up, leading New York City as mayor（市长）, and so on.
Life is too short to spend your time avoiding failure.
In 1981, at the age of 39, I lost my job. The next day I took a big risk and began my own company. In 2001, when I was debating whether to run for mayor, most people advised me not to do it. But one person said, “If you can imagine yourself giving a concession（败选）speech, then why not go for it?” That was the best advice I received, and I followed it.
In order to succeed, you must first be willing to fail— and you must have the courage to go for it anyway.
Make your own luck
Luck plays a part in success. The harder you work, the luckier you get.
Whatever you choose to do, even if it's not the job of your dreams, always work hard at it. Be the first person at work in the morning and the last to leave at night. Hard work creates chances. Never stop learning
The most powerful word in English language is “why”. There is nothing so powerful as an open, inquiring mind（探究精神）. Whatever field you choose for starting a business — be a lifelong student.
You are responsible for your success and failure, but you only succeed if you share the reward with others.
My first donation was a $ 5 check to my alma mater （母校） . And while the checks（支票）may be bigger today, they come with the same spirit.
You don't have to be wealthy to give back. You can give back by giving your time and talents. （1）In this passage, Michael Bloomberg is the name of a .
（2）What did the writer do at the age of 59?
A. Lost his job.
B. Ran for mayor.
C. Built a company.
D. Became a teacher.（3）From the passage, we can infer that the writer .
A. is a young mayor
B. seldom cares about others
C. is lucky all the time
D. is a hard-working man
（4）Which of the following isn't mentioned in the tips?
A. Failure is the mother of success.
B. It's never too old to learn.
C. Money is everything.
D. Luck comes from hard work.
（5）In which of the following columns（栏目）can you find the article?
A. Family Life
B. Interesting Stories
C. Experience Sharing
（1）细节推断题，根据短文的第一段中出现的句子“They are based on his experience”可知，这里的his指的是Michael Bloomberg这个人。故选D。
（2）细节理解题，根据Take Risks的第二段中的句子“1981, at the age of 39, I lost my job. The next day I took a big risk and began my own company. In 2001, when I was debating whether to run for mayor,”可知，2001年作者刚好59岁，打算精选市长，故选B。
（3）推理判断题，由Take Risks/Make your own luck中的内容“Be the first person at work in the morning and the last to leave at night. Hard work creates chances.”可知，作者是一个勤奋的人。故选D。
（4）细节理解题，通过排除法，A选项在Take Risks的首段提到；B项在Take Risks的第二段和第三段可知；D项由Make your own luck的第二段可得出。故C没有提及。故选C。（5）推理判断题。整篇文章是作者给大家分享个人经验，所以C选项最佳。故选C。
It was the Peter shopkeeper in New York who taught me about the great power of kindness.
At that time I was a poor student. I would work early mornings and the late nights to pay for my studies.
On the day I went to that shop for the first time. I was sick with a very high fever. I had been off work for a few days, and I had run out of food. As I had been so busy working, I hardly had friends nearby who could help.
So I went out to get some food. Usually, I would have gone to the supermarket, but because it was closer, I went into the Peter Shop. I picked up a few items, and then handed them to the shopkeeper, who told me, “Girl, you are unwell.” I nodded.
He pointed at the sausage (香肠) and bread I was buying and offered, “l can make you a sandwich, so you don't have to do it yourself.” So, he made the sandwic h and asked me to wait a moment. He went in the back room and reappeared with a bowl of hot soup. “It will warm you up,” he said with a gentle smile.
What really warmed me up, though, was not the soup. It was his smile. His kindness made me feel cared for at a point in life when I was particularly lonely. It made me want to be as kind as the shopkeeper who had been kind to me. I had been quite shy, but from that day on, I did not let shyness stop me from performing kindness.
（1）Why did the writer work so hard?
A. Because she had to pay for her studies.
B. Because she wanted to stay in New York.
C. Because her friend needed help.
D. Because she wanted to get more experience.
（2）What was wrong with the writer on taht day?
A. She lost her job.
B. She had a terrible cold.
C. She had a high fever.
D. She lost her money.
（3）What did the shopkeeper do for the writer?
A. Gave some bread to her.
B. Made a sandwich for her.
C. Gave some medicine to her.
D. Gave a bowl of cold soup to her.
（4）What can we know from the last paragraph?
A. The writer would go to the shop often later.
B. The shopkeeper and the writer became good friends.
C. The writer was moved and wanted to be kind to others.
D. The shopkeeper cured (治愈) the writer's illness.
（1）细节理解题。从. I would work early mornings and the late nights to pay for my studies.可知作者这么努力工作是想付学费，故选A。
（2）细节理解题。从On the day I went to that shop for the first time. I was sick with a very high fever.可知那天作者发高烧，故选C。
（3）细节理解题。从“l can make you a sandwich, so you don't have to do it yourself.” So, he made the sandwich and asked me to wait a moment.可知这个店员给她做了个三明治，故选B。
When he was nine years old, American boy Milo Cress had a question: How many plastic straws(吸管) do Americans use every day?
He quickly learned there wasn't a simple answer. The boy tried to work it out himself. Through lots of research, Cress found out that Americans use about 500 million straws every day. In hopes of reducing plastic waste, he founded the Be Straw Free project in 2011.
Cress started the project in his hometown – Burlington, Vermont. He asked a local restaurant to stop offering straws with every drink order. It was a simple change. However, it would save money. And by doing that, the restaurant would cut down on its straw use by 50 percent.
For the years that followed, Cress tried to spread his project across the United States. More and more restaurants agreed to join. They stop providing the customer with a straw unless he or she asks for one. Last April, Seattle became the first American city to completely ban (禁止) plastic straws.
Plastic pollution has been one of the most serious problems today. According to scientists, more than eight million tons of plastic end up in the ocean each year. Plastic straws are especially terrible. They make it easy for people to get comfortable with single-use plastics.
After his project became popular, Cress took his findings on the road. He has since spoken to tens of thousands of students around the world. He wants to encourage more people to say no to plastic straws.
"Focusing(聚焦) on straws is one simple step we all could take," Cress says. "And it makes me feel that I, as a kid, could make a difference, too."
（1）When did Milo Cress start to care about the problem of straws?
A. Ten years ago.
B. In the year 2011.
C. In the year that he was 9.
（2）Cress started the Be Straw Free project in order to .
A. get a good score in science at his school
B. encourage people to reduce plastic waste
C. become a famous person in his hometown
（3）What did Cress ask a restaurant in Burlington to do?
A. Stop offering straws to its customers.
B. Prevent people from using straws to drink.
C. Count the number of straws it uses every day.
（4）Plastic straws are especially terrible because .
A. they are the most serious problem today
B. scientists pay little attention to their influence
C. they help people get used to using single-use plastics
（5）Over the years, Cress has .
① spread his project acr oss the United States
② asked Seattle to completely ban plastic bags
③ counted the plastic straws in the ocean every year
④ spoken to teens around the world about plastic waste
【解析】【分析】本文介绍了塑料垃圾对环保的危害，Cress用环保吸管替代塑料吸管。（1）细节题。根据 When he was nine years old, American boy Milo Cress had a question: How many plastic straws(吸管) do Americans use every day 可知9岁的时候，米洛·克里斯开始关心吸管的问题了，故选C。
（2）细节题。根据 In hopes of reducing plastic waste, he founded the Be Straw Free project in 2011. 可知为了鼓励减少塑料垃圾，他在2011年创建了无稻草项目，故选B。
（3）细节题。根据He asked a local restaurant to stop offering straws with every drink order ，可知他要求当地一家餐馆停止为每一份饮料订单提供吸管，故选A。
（4）细节题。根据 Plastic straws are especially terrible. They make it easy for people to get comfortable with single-use plastics. 可知塑料吸管尤其可怕。它们让人们更容易适应一次性塑料制品，故选C。
（5）细节题。根据 Cress tried to spread his project across the United States 和 He has since spoken to tens of thousands of students around the world 可知这些年来，克雷斯把他的项目推广到了美国，并向全世界的青少年讲述了塑料废料的问题，故选C。
Everyone faces difficulties in their life. Daniel Kish was born with a special eye illness and lost his eyesight before he was only 14 months old.
Soon after, however, he started to do an amazing thing. He learned to make clicks (咔哒声) with his tongue to help him move around. Kish now moves about using sonar (声纳). He is so good at it that he can ride a bicycle by himself on public roads. And he started the organization
World Access for the Blind (WAFTB) in 2000, teaching others how to use sonar. In the interview with National Geographic, he explains how the sonar works.
"When I make a click sound, it produces sound waves. These waves reflect (反射) off surfaces all around and return to my ears. My brain then deals with the sound and turns it into pictures in my mind. Each click is like a camera flash, which helps me make a 3-D picture of my surroundings for hundreds of feet. It's like having a conversation with the environment."
Kish feels it is exciting to ride a bike using sonar, although he needs to click twice a second, much more than he usually does. "It may sound a bit dangerous to move around the world in this way," he says. "But most people in the world live in fear of things that they imagine. I love hiking and mountain-biking. I go almost everywhere. And I've never had an accident and hurt myself."
He is happy to be able to help more blind children to improve their life. "We've served over 10, 000 students in nearly 40 countries," he tells the reporter. "Many students are surprised how quickly results come. Seeing isn't in the eyes. It's in the mind."
（1）Kish moves around using sonar because ________.
A. he is good at making clicks
B. it makes him "see" the world
C. he has a great interest in science
D. it is important for him to keep healthy
（2）Which of the following is the right order showing how the sonar works?
①The sound waves reflect off surfaces.
②The person makes a clicking sound.
③The brain turns the sound into pictures.
④The sound waves reach the person's ears.
（3）What can we learn about World Access for the Blind (WAFTB) from the passage?
A. It offers the blind free bicycles.
B. It sells sonar products to the blind.
C. It teaches the blind to use sonar.
D. It helps the blind find more friends.
（4）The best title for the passage might be ________.
A. Living without fear
B. Traveling with the blind
C. Hoping for the future
D. Looking around the world
（1）细节理解题。根据文中的语句When I make a click sound, it produces sound waves. These waves reflect (反射) off surfaces all around and return to my ears. My brain then deals with the sound and turns it into pictures in my mind. Each click is like a camera flash, which helps me make a 3-D picture of my surroundings for hundreds of feet. It's like having a conversation with the environment." 理解可知，丹尼尔主要利用声呐来帮助他看清周围的世界，故选B。（2）根据文中的语句He When I make a click sound, it produces sound waves. 可知，第一句应该是The person makes a clicking sound.根据文中的语句These waves reflect (反射) off surfaces all around and return to my ears. 理解可知，第二句应该是The sound waves reflect off surfaces.第三句是The sound waves reach the person's ears.根据语句My brain then deals with the sound and turns it into pictures in my mind. 理解可知，第四句应该是The brain turns the sound into pictures.它们的顺序是②①④③，故选B。
（3）细节理解题。根据文中的语句And he started the organization World Access for the Blind (WAFTB) in 2000, teaching others how to use sonar. 理解可知，丹尼尔创建WAFTB的目的就是教其他盲人学会利用声呐，故选C。
（4）标题归纳题。根据文中的语句Kish feels it is exciting to ride a bike using sonar, although he needs to click twice a second, much more than he usually does. "It may sound a bit dangerous to move around the world in this way," he says. "But most people in the world live in fear of things that they imagine. I love hiking and mountain-biking. I go almost everywhere. And I've never had an accident and hurt myself."理解可知，本文主要介绍了丹尼尔虽然失明，但是没有被面临的困难吓倒，仍然利用声呐到处行走，并且没有出现事故。这就告诉人们要敢于面对生活中的困难，故选A。
Many scientists think that the earth is getting warmer and warmer. If the change continues, the natural world and human society will face danger. Scientists believe human activity is responsible for the climate change. We produce too many greenhouse gases. They keep heat in the air and make the earth warm.
Many of the world's governments agree. And they want to solve the problem. So from December 7 to 18, 2009, they held a conference in Copenhagen, Denmark to talk about global warming and climate change.
Representatives(代表) from 192 countries and regions went to the meeting. Although they have not reached an agreement, the Copenhagen Accord(《哥本哈根协议》) was an important beginning to save the earth. It was made by a small group of countries including China, the US, India, Brazil and South Africa. Some other countries at the conference also showed support. What are the key points of the Copenhagen Accord? The accord limits global temperature increases to 20C by 2050 compared to pre-1850. Scientists think it could help the world to avoid serious climate change.
The accord also says that developed countries must promise to cut greenhouse gas emissions(排放) to the UN by January 31, 2010. The accord asks developed countries to give money to help developing countries.
Many countries and organizations are disappointed that the conference didn't reach a legal document(法律约定). And they think the accord is not clear enough about its goals.
African leaders are worried that the goal of a 20C global temperature increase isn't good enough, because it will mean a much higher increase in temperature across Africa. This could cause big problems like food and water shortages across the continent.
Still, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon believes the conference was an "improvement".
（1）What do scientists believe is responsible for the climate change?
A. Human activity
B. Animals growing
C. Plants growing
D. Too many people （2）What did members of the Copenhagen Meeting NOT talk about?
A. Economic recovery(经济复苏)
B. Global warming
C. Climate change
D. Cutting greenhouse gas emissions
（3）What's the attitude(态度)of African leaders towards the goal of a 20C global temperature increase?
A. They are happy about it
B. They don't care much about it
C. They are worried about it
D. They support it
（4）What does the underlined word "disappointed" mean?
D. 难过（5）Which is true about the Copenhagen Accord?
A. Developing countries must promise to cut greenhouse gas emissions.
B. Both developing countries and developed countries should not produce any greenhouse gases.
C. The EU agreed to give ＄3.6 billion to help developing countries.
D. The Copenhagen Accord isn't a legal document, but it's an important beginning to save the earth.
（1）细节理解题。根据Scientists believe human activity is responsible for the climate change. 可知人类活动是造成气候变化的原因。故答案为A。
（2）细节理解题。根据So from 7 to 18 December, 2009, they held a conference in Copenhagen, Denmark to talk about global warming and climate change.和The accord limits global temperature increases to 2°C by 2050. Scientists think it could help the world to avoid serious climate change.以及The accord also says that developed countries must promise to cut greenhouse gas emissions (排放) to the UN by 31 January, 2010. 可知哥本哈根会议谈论的内容