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2019年中考英语阅读理解专项练习(含解析)

中考英语阅读理解专项练习

(含答案)

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Passage 1

Instead of gulping(狼吞虎咽地吃) your food, try eating more slowly. It may help you drop those unwanted pounds. The conclusion is from a new study by Japanese researchers.

The study showed that compared with people who gobbled their food, those who ate at a normal speed were 29 percent less likely to be obese(肥胖的). But those who ate slowly were up to 42 percent less likely to be obese. In addition, slow eaters tended(往往会) to be healthier and to have a healthier lifestyle than those who ate quickly or at a normal speed.

“However, this study could not prove that eating speed causes or stops obesity,” the researchers noted. They were led by Dr. Haruhisa Fukuda from Japan.

“Slow eating has its advantages and a few disadvantages,” said Samantha Heller from New York City. “On the one hand, slow eating gives our bodies time to register a sense of satisfaction and fullness, so we eat less. We are more likely to enjoy the taste of food. On the other hand, the longer some

people sit in front of food, the more food they will eat,” she said.

“Speed eating appears to be far more harmful. People who eat quickly, as many of us do, gulp far more food than they need. In many European countries, slow eating is a way of life,” Heller said. “In America, speed eating takes the lead. Thus, we need to encourage people to have a change, learn the way of slower eating from Europeans and get a true enjoyment of food.”

1. Where do the searchers who found eating slowly may help you drop pounds come from?

A. American.

B. Japan.

C. Europe.

D. China.

2. Who is less likely to be obese?

A. People who eat slowly.

B. People who eat quickly.

C. People who eat at a normal speed.

D. People who eat less.

3. What does the underlined word “register” mean in Chinese?

A. 表现出

B. 注意到

C. 反映出

D. 产生

4. Which of the following is not TRUE according to the text?

A. Slow eaters are healthier than those who eat quickly.

B. Eating quickly can causes or stops obesity.

C. Speed eating is harmful to us.

D. The longer you sit in front of food, the more food you will

eat.

5. What does the text mainly talk about?

A. The ways of avoiding being obese.

B. The disadvantages of gulping food.

C. The advantages of eating slowly.

D. The ways of eating slowly.

【主旨大意】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了慢速进食的好处,最后借用研究者的观点鼓励人们慢速进食。

1. B【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:发现慢速进食可能帮助你减轻体重的研究者来自哪里?A项:美国;B项:日本;C项:欧洲;D项:中国。根据第一段最后一句“The conclusion is from a new study by Japanese researchers.”可知研究者来自日本。故选B。

2. A【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:谁有较小的几率发胖?A

项:慢速进食的人;B项:快速进食的人;C项:常速进食的人;D项:吃得少的人。根据第二段第二句“But those who ate slowly were up to 42 percent less likely to be obese.”可知慢速进食的人有较小的几率发胖。故选A。

3. B【解析】词义猜测题。题干意为:划线单词“register”的中文意思是什么?根据划线单词所在句子“On the one hand, slow eating gives our bodies time to register a sense of satisfaction and fullness, so we eat l ess.”可推测register在本句应表示“注意到”,故选B。

4. B【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:根据文章内容,下面哪一个是错误的?A项:慢速进食者比快速进食者更健康;B项:快速进食可以引起或停止肥胖;C项:快速进食对我们有害;D项:你坐在食物前的时间越长,你会吃越多的食物。根据第三段内容“‘However, this study could not prove that eating speed causes or stops obesity,’ the researchers noted. The y were led by Dr. Haruhisa Fukuda from Japan.”可知这份研究不能表明吃饭速度可以引起或停止肥胖。故选B。

5. C【解析】主旨大意题。题干意为:这篇文章主要谈论了

什么?A项:避免发胖的方式;B项:狼吞虎咽地吃食物的弊端;C项:慢速进食的益处;D项:慢速进食的方法。通读全文可知本文主要介绍了慢速进食的益处。故选C。

Passage 2

When it comes to friendships, it’s important to have some things in common. However, while enjoying the same films and having similar taste in restaurants might seem important, the real test of a strong friendship could lie in your genetics(基因). This is because friends are more genetically similar than strangers.

A team of researchers from Stanford, Duke and the University of Wisconsin examined 5,500 American teenagers. After carrying out a series of genetic comparisons between pairs of friends, they found genetic similarities between them, which are far more than between pairs who didn’t know each other.

They also found that friends were on average around two thirds as genetically similar as married couples, reported Time. This might be because people are attracted by those with whom they have shared characteristics such as having similar

backgrounds, levels of education or being of a similar height or weight. The researchers described this process as social homophily(社会同质性).

Another explanation they suggested is that people form friendships within shared social environments more easily. For example, they may attend the same school or live in the same community. This is known as social structuring.

They added that social homophily and social structuring may also complement(补充)each other. In terms with friends, their resea rch suggests that it’s largely the effect of social structures.

1. What does the real test for the friendship between you and your friends lie in according to the text?

A. Your experiences.

B. Your interest.

C. Your genetics.

D. Your social structures.

2. Where are the researchers from?

A. Stanford University and the University of Wisconsin.

B. Stanford University, Oxford University and the University

of Wisconsin.

C. Stanford University, Oxford University and Cambridge

University.

D. Stanford University, Duke University and the University of

Wisconsin.

3. What does the underlined word “characteristics” mean in Chinese?

A. 性格

B. 特征

C. 习惯

D. 嗜好

4. Which of the following can not prove that social structures affect friendships between people?

A. People who live in the same community make friends with

each other more easily.

B. People who attend the same school make friends with each

other more easily.

C. People who have the same height or weight are more

willing to make friends with each other.

D. People who live in the same block make friends with each

other more easily.

5. What does the text mainly talk about?

A. Friends are more genetically similar than strangers.

B. Social structuring greatly affects friendships.

C. People form friendships more easily in the same social

environment.

D. Social homophily and social structuring are two different

things.

【主旨大意】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了一项研究结果表明朋友间的基因相似性强于陌生人。

1. C【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:根据文章内容,你和你朋友之间的友谊的真正考验在于什么?A项:你们的经历;B项:你们的兴趣;C项:你们的基因;D项:你们的社会结构。根据第一段第二句“However, while enjoying the same films and having similar taste in restaurants might seem important, the real test of a strong friendship could lie in your genetics(基因).”可知选C。

2. D【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:这些研究者来自哪里?根据第二段第一句“A team of researchers from Stanford,

Duke and the University of Wisconsin examined 5,500 American teenagers.”可知研究者来自斯坦福大学、杜克大学及威斯康星大学。故选D。

3. B【解析】词义猜测题。题干意为:划线单词“characteristics”的中文意思是什么?根据划线单词所在句子中的“such as having similar backgrounds, levels of education or being of a similar height or weight”可知此处描述的是人的一些特征。故选B。

4. C【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:下面哪一项不能证明社会结构化会影响人们之间的友谊?A项:在同一个社区居住的人们更容易和彼此成为朋友;B项:在同一所学校上学的人更容易和彼此成为朋友;C项:身高或体重相同的人更愿意和彼此交朋友;D项:在同一个街区住的人更容易和彼此成为朋友。根据第三段后两句“This might be because people are attracted by those with whom they have shared characteristics such as having similar backgrounds, levels of education or being of a similar height or weight. The researchers described this process as social homophily(社会同质性).”可知

身高或体重相同的人更愿意和彼此交朋友是社会同质性的表现。根据第四段内容可知其他三项均能证明社会结构化会影响人们之间的友谊。故选C。

5. A【解析】主旨大意题。题干意为:这篇文章主要谈论的是什么?A项:朋友间的基因相似度高于陌生人;B项:社会结构化对友谊影响很大;C项:在相同的社会环境中,人们建立友谊更容易;D项:社会同质性和社会结构化是两个不同的东西。通读全文可知本文介绍朋友间的基因相似度高于陌生人。故选A。

Passage 3

Have you ever wanted to try on clothes without falling into the trouble of getting undressed? If you have, here’s a device(装置) for you: the virtual(虚拟的) fitting room.

The technology, designed by a Russian company AR Door, was first tried out in May. When a customer walks into a “fitting”room, they’ll stand in front of a big screen that looks like a mirror. A camera in the mirror, using Microsoft Kinect, records your movement and projects a 3-D image of the clothes

onto you while you stand before a screen.

The room also uses augmented reality(增强现实) technology. “Augmented reality technology allows the customers to select an item of clothing without having to try it on physically,”the company told the Daily Mail. A customer can spin around to see all angles of the clothes, and control the program by pushing virtual buttons.

AR Door is not the only company to be developing technology to help people with the way they look. Japanese company Shiseido recently presented its Magic Mirror, a virtual make-up mirror that allows people to get a full look in seconds.

However, the technology is not perfect. The clothes still seem to hang on the surface of the body, rather than actually wearing them. And people shopping for clothes are probably still better off actually trying them on. In the end, you won’t know how something really looks and feels.

1. The virtual fitting room was designed in ________.

A. Russia

B. Japan

C. America

D. England

2. In the virtual fitting room, _________ is on the screen.

A. a computer

B. a fitting room

C. a camera

D. a shop assistant

3. The virtual fitting room is a technology that__________.

A. allows people to watch a movie while trying on clothes

B. helps people buy clothes without having to try them on

C. helps people select clothes without having to try them on

D. allows people to walk freely in the fitting room

4. What does the underlined word “spin”probably mean in Chinese in this passage?

A. 纺织

B. 结网

C. 旋转

D. 延伸

5. What can we learn from the last paragraph?

A. Few people buy clothes in clothing stores.

B. People still need to try on clothes before buying them.

C. The magic technology is now widely used.

D. The virtual fitting room is perfect.

【主旨大意】本文是一篇说明文。主要介绍了虚拟试衣间这种新型科技。

1. A【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:虚拟试衣间是在_____被设计的。根据第二段第一句中的“...designed by a Russian company AR Door...”可知是在俄罗斯被设计的。故选A。

2. C【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:在虚拟试衣间里,屏幕上方是_____。根据第二段第二、三句中的“...in front of a big screen that looks like a mirror. A camera in the mirror...”可知屏幕上方有一架摄影机。故选C。

3. C【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:虚拟试衣间是一种______的科技。A项:允许人们在试衣服的时候看电影;B项:帮助人们在不试衣服的情况下买衣服;C项:帮助人们在不试衣服的情况下选择衣服;D项:允许人们在试衣间自由行走。根据第三段第二句中的“Augmented reality technology allows the customers to select an item of clothing without having to try it on physically...”可知虚拟试衣间能帮助人们在不试衣服的情况下选择衣服。故选C。

4. C【解析】词义猜测题。题干意为:文章中划线单词“spin”的汉语意思可能是什么?根据下文“to see all angles of the clothes”可知此处指旋转。故选C。

5. B【解析】推理判断题。题干意为:我们可以从最后一段知道什么?A项:几乎没有人在服装店买衣服;B项:人们仍然需要在买衣服前试它们;C项:这项神奇的科技现在被广泛使用;D项:虚拟试衣间很完美。根据最后一段倒数第二句“And people shopping for clothes are probably still better off actually trying them on.”可知人们仍然需要在买衣服前试衣服。故选B。

Passage 4

How do you pay for things? Do you usually use cash(现金), or do you like to pay by credit card(信用卡)? Credit cards are small, rectangular (长方形的)plastic cards. Banks give these cards to their customers. Then once a month, the bank requires the customers to pay all the charges for that month.

Credit cards first became popular in the 1920s. At that time, businesses, such as hotels and companies, gave credit cards to their best customers. Unlike today’s credit cards, customers could only use these cards at the store or business that gave out the card. Customers had to pay for things in full. They couldn’t

pay for something a little at a time.

In 1950, a businessman named McNamara started a credit card company —Diners Club. Unlike earlier credit cards, this card could be used by customers at many restaurants. Customers liked the card because they didn’t have to carry a lot of cash with them. Restaurant owners liked the card, too. Why? They found out that customers usually spent more money when they could pay by credit card.

In its first year of business, Diners Club issued 200 cards. The customers who got the cards from the Diners Club could use them at 27 different restaurants. Today, Diners Club has about 8 million customers, and they can use their cards in over 7.6 million businesses in more than 200 countries.

1. We can learn from the passage that credit card is a _____.

A. kind of money Americans are interested in

B. special type of check used by Americans to buy what they

need

C. small rectangular plastic card used for payment

D. dollar made of paper

2. How often does the bank require its customers to pay all the charges?

A. Once a month.

B. Over a long period of time.

C. The sooner, the better.

D. Once a year.

3. What can we know about the earlier credit cards from the passage?

A. They could be used everywhere.

B. Customers had to pay for things in full.

C. They were very popular before the 1920s.

D. They were widely used.

4. What can we infer from the passage?

A. People could use credit cards at the store or business in the

1920s.

B. Restaurant owners liked the cards because they didn’t need

to give the change to customers.

C. McNamara issued more cards over many countries because

the cards became popular and convenient to people.

D. Today, the credit cards are used in all the countries around

the world.

5. What does the passage mainly tell us?

A. The introduction of the development of credit cards.

B. The difference between credit cards and cash.

C. The advantage and disadvantage of credit cards.

D. The different fields between cash and credit cards.

【主旨大意】本文是一篇说明文。介绍了信用卡的发展历程。

1. C【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:从这篇文章中我们可以知道信用卡是一个______。A项:一种美国人很感兴趣的钱;B项:美国人买他们需要的东西的特殊支票;C项:用来支付的小的长方形的塑料卡片;D项:纸做的美元。根据第一段第三句“Credit cards are small, rectangular (长方形的)plastic cards.”可知是用来支付的小长方形塑料卡片。故选C。

2. A【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:银行要求它的客户多久支付所有的费用?A项:一个月一次;B项:很长一段时间;C项:越快越好;D项:一年一次。根据第一段最后一句“Th en once a month, the bank requires the customers to pay

all the charges for that month.”可知应是一个月一次。故选A。

3. B【解析】细节理解题。题干意为:有关早期的信用卡,从文章中我们可以了解到什么?A项:它们可以到处被使用;B项:顾客必须全额付款;C项:在20世纪20年代以前它们非常受欢迎;D项:它们被广泛使用。根据第二段倒数第二句“Customers had to pay for things in full.”可知B项正确。故选B。

4. C【解析】推理判断题。题干意为:从这篇文章中我们可以推断出什么?A项:在20世纪20年代人们就可以在商店或者是生意上使用信用卡了;B项:饭店的老板喜欢信用卡是因为他们不需要给顾客找零钱了;C项:因为信用卡变的更加流行和便捷,麦克纳马拉在很多国家都发行了;D项:今天,信用卡在全世界的所有国家都在被使用。根据文章第三段可知信用卡刚发行时很流行和第四段是讲信用卡的便捷让越来越多的人使用,可推测麦克纳马拉在很多国家都发行信用是因为信用卡很受欢迎并且便捷。故选C。

5. A【解析】主旨大意题。题干意为:这个文章主要是关于什么的?A项:信用卡发展的介绍;B项:信用卡和现金的区

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