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数词,代词

数词,代词
数词,代词

中考英语复习语法模块之数词、代词

(一)概说:

英语的数词可分为基数词和序数词两大类。基数词表示的是人或事物的个数,而序数词表示的是这些数目的顺序。

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一、写出下列数字的基数词和序数词

1 _________ __________

2 _________ __________

3 _________ __________

4 _________ __________

5 _________ __________

6 _________ __________

7 _________ __________ 8 _________ __________ 9 _________ __________

10 _________ __________ 13 _________ __________ 25 _________ __________

34 _________ __________ 46 _________ __________ 50 _________ __________

68 _________ __________ 79 _________ __________ 100 _________ __________

273 _________ __________

二、翻译下列短语

1.数以千计的___________ 2.几百万棵树______________

3.三年半_____________________________________ 4.五分之二________

5.一个5 个月大的婴儿____________________ 6.一座长2 千米的桥______________________

7.在19 世纪70 年代___________ 8.在第12 层_______________

9.在她9 岁生日时________________ 10.7 点45 分___________________________

基数词的用法

1、表示计量:表示事物的计量,即事物的长度、宽度、深度和高度,应采用基数词。

.“基数词+单位名词+形容词”可用来描述事物的形状特征,且单位名词的单复数根据基数词而定。此结构常作表语。如:It's 10 metres deep/long/wide/tall (high).它有10 米深/长/宽/高。也可以用“基数词+单位名词+名词/形容词”构成合成形容词,每个词之间用连字符“-” 连接。此结构中的单位名词和名词均不能用复数,也不能用所有格形式。此结构常作定语。如:a two-hundred-day adventure trip 两百天的冒险旅程 a ten-minute walk=ten minutes' walk 十分钟的路程a sixteen-year-old boy 一个16 岁的男孩 a

two-meter-long table 一张两米长的桌子

如:It is 50 metres/kilometers/miles long (wide, deep, high).它有50米/千米/英里长(宽、深、高)。

2、表示编号:编号的数字如果过小,可用序数词或基数词表示;如果数字较大,通常用基数词表示。如:The tenth lesson=Lesson Ten 第10课

Room 405 第405号房

Page 215 第215页

No.14 Middle School 第14中学

Telephone NO.5855806 电话:5855806

【重点】3、表示不确切的数字:基数词后面直接加上复数名词表示精确的数字,而基数词复数形式加上“of” 表示不确切的数字。

注意:hundred, thousand, million, billion 的用法(1)hundred, thousand, million, billion 等表示具体数目时,用单数形式,不加-s。如:five hundred students 五百名学生(2)表示大概(不确定)数目时,要在它们的词尾加-s,且要与of 连用。如:hundreds of 数以百计的,成百的millions of 数以百万计的,数百万的注意:此种结构前面可以用many, several, a few 修饰。如:many hundreds of students 数以百计的学生

4、表示年龄和岁数。

(1)基数词(+years old)。如:He is ten (years old) now.他现在10 岁。

(2)at the age of+基数词。如:At the age of ten he came to China. 他十岁的时候来到中国。

(3)“基数词+year/month/day+old”构成合成形容词,表示“……岁/月/天的”。

如:a three-month-old baby 一个三个月大的婴儿

(4)“in+one's+整十基数词复数”表示“在某人几十多岁时”。如:in his fifties 在他50 多岁时

【难点】

5、表示年代:表示什么世纪,什么年代时,通常在数词后加s或’s,并在年代前加定冠词the ,如1980’s (20世纪80年代),读作:nineteen eighties.

如:His grandfather died in the 1970’s。他爷爷死于20世纪70年代。

6.表示时间。

(1)“整点”的表达:基数词+o'clock(可省略)。如:seven (o'clock) 7:00

(2)“几点几分”的表达:①顺读法:直接用基数词表示,即“钟点数+分钟数”。如:three fifty-five 3:55 nine thirty 9:30 ②逆读法:当分钟数小于或等于30 时,用介词past,即“分钟数+past+钟点数”。如:ten past ten 10:10 thirty past seven 7:30 当分钟数大于30 时,用介词to,即“(60-分钟数)+to+(钟点数+1)”,表示“几点差几分”。如:ten to nine 8:50 twenty to three 2:40

注意:(1)表示几刻钟常用“quarter”。如:a quarter past two 2:15 fifteen to eight/a quarter to eight 7:45 (2)表示半小时常用“half”。如:half an hour 半小时half past six 6:30 one and a half hours/one hour and a half 一个半小时

7.表示日期。表示年、月、日时,年用基数词,日用序数词,并常在年前加逗号。只表示年和月时中间可不用逗号。在英语中,年、月、日的排列顺序为“月、日、年”(美式)或“日、月、年”(英式)。如:15th, August, 2011 (英)/August 15th, 2011 (美) 2011 年8 月15 日in December 2010 在2010 年12 月on the 8th of August, 2008 在2008 年8 月8 日注意:(1)在年月日的书写中,表示几号的序数词前不写the,但在读

法中要把the 读出来。如:15th, August, 2011 读作:the fifteenth, August, two thousand and eleven (2)年的读法:1998 读作:nineteen ninety-eight 1806 读作:eighteen and six 2007 读作:two thousand and seven 或twenty zero seven

8.表示加、减、乘、除等运算。

如:Eight minus five is three.八减五等于三。Two times three is six.二乘三等于六。

9.表示次数、倍数。“一次”是once, “两次”习惯上用twice, 其他的用“基数词+times”表示。如:three times 三次/三倍ten times 十次/十倍This book is three times thicker than that one. 这本书是那本书的三倍厚。10.表示非整数。

【重点】(1)分数的表达法:分子用基数词,分母用序数词。分子大于1 时,分母要加-s。

如:one second 或a/one half 二分之一two thirds 三分之二one fourth/a quarter 四分之一three

fourths/three quarters 四分之三

(2)小数的表达法:小数点用“point”。如:three point six 3.6 (zero) point four 0.4

(3)百分数的表达法:“百分之……”用“percent”。如:fifty percent 50% 注意:分数、小数、百分数在修饰名词时常用of 和名词连接。如:Four fifths of the work is finished. 完成了五分之四的工作。Twenty percent of the students are boys. 百分之二十的学生是男孩子。

序数词的用法

1.序数词在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和表语。如:The second is what I really need. 第二个是我真正需要的。(作主语) He chose the second. 他挑选了第二个。(作宾语) We are to carry out the first plan. 我们将执行第一个计划。(作定语)

2.序数词前面一般要加定冠词the,后面一般用单数名词。He lives on the second floor.他住在二楼。

注意:(1)当序数词前有形容性物主代词或名词所有格时,就不用the;当序数词作状语时不用the;当序数词表示“在比赛中获第几名”时也不用the。如:He's my first friend, also Mike's first friend. 他是我的第一个朋友,也是麦克的第一个朋友。She always gets to school first. 她总是第一个到学校。First went to the Chinese team. 中国队获得了第一名。(2)一些习惯用语中的序数词前也不用the。如:at first 首先,起初first of all 第一,首先at first sight 乍一看到,第一眼

3.序数词有时可与不定冠词a 连用,表示数量上“又一,再一”。

如:He has failed twice. He tried a third time. 他已失败了两次。他又试了一次。

4.“序数词+世纪(century)”表示“几世纪”,可转化成“定冠词+基数词+'s”。

如:twentieth century/the 1900's 20 世纪其他重要的表达方式two or three days=two days or three 两至三天two more hours=another two hours 另外两小时first name 名,名字second-hand 二手的,用过的ones and twos 三三两两sixes and sevens 乱七八糟

【提高题】

I.选择题

1. There are_________days in a year.

A. three hundred and sixty-five

B. three hundred sixty five

C. three hundreds sixty-five

D. three hundreds and sixty-five

2. Oh, it's ._________. Let's go to school together.

A. the quarter to eight

B. a quarter to eight

C. seven forty-five minutes

D. forty-five past seven

3. School usually begins on_________.

A. the first of September

B. the first, September

C. September One

D. September, the first

4. The Olympic Games will be held in Australia in_________.

A. 2,000 year

B. the year 2,000

C. the 2,000

D. the year of 2,000

5. I'm afraid_________of the stoiy is not so interesting.

A. the part two

B. second part

C. the second part

D. part second

6. — Which room are you staying in?

—_____.

A. The Room 301

B. 301 Room

C. Room 301st

D. Room 301

7. — How many typewriters do you need?

—I need________.

A. three ones

B. three

C. the three

D. them three

8. About_________said that they enjoyed those books very much.

A. four fifths students

B. four fifth of the students

C. four fifths of students

D. four fifths of the students

9. — How much does the parcel weigh?

—Just a minute. I'll weigh it. It weighs________.

A. one and half a kilogramme

B. one and a half kilogramme

C. one kilogramme and half

D. one kilogramme and a half

10. — How soon will you finish typing the letter?

—______.

A. one or two minute

B. one minute or two

C. a minute or two

D. a or two minutes

11. We'll spend the summer holidays in the mountain_______miles away.

A. several hundreds

B. hundreds of

C. several hundred of

D. hundred of

12. — He must be________.

—Yes, he's still strong like a young man.

A. in his sixties

B. in his sixty

C. over sixties

D. sixty-year-old

13. As _______customer of the supermarket, Mr Li was given a nice present.

A. a thousand

B. the thousandth

C. the thousands

D. thousandth

14. Three students of our class have been chosen the top students of the year. And I am one of .

A. three

B. the three

C. third

D. the third

15. —Have you found the six coins you lost yesterday?

— I have found _______ , but I can't find ____ .

A. five, the sixth

B. five, six

C. fifths, six

D. fifth, sixth

16. Next Sunday will be Jane's _______.birthday.

A. thirty-ninth

B. thirtieth-ninth

C. thirtieth-nine

D. thirty-nine

17. We'll have to enter the stadium at . ___.

A. the Gate Four

B. Gate Four

C. Fourth Gate

D. Gate Fourth

18. My _________daughter likes to ask questions about anything she sees.

A. six-years-old

B. six years old

C. six-year-old

D. six-year old

19. —What's on ............. ?

— Sorry, I don't know. Why not look it up in TV Guide?

A. Channel 20

B. 20 Channel

C. Channel 20th

D. 20th Channel

20. The Yellow River is _ longest river in China.

A. two

B. the two

C. the second

D. second

21. We have two computer rooms. Still we are going to build ______one.

A. the third

B. a third

C. three

D. the three

22. Angel knows a lot about China as she has been to China ............ .

A. for the fourth time

B. four times

C. a fourth time

D. for four times

23. In the past.................. , Shanghai has changed a lot.

A. three years

B. third year

C. three-year

D. third-year

24. A cent is of a dollar.

A. the hundredth

B. one hundredth

C. a hundred

D. the hundred

25. To my surprise, the machine was invented by a high school student of_______.

A. fifteen-year-old

B. fifteen

C. fifteen-year age

D. age of fifteen

26._________is not always________ best.

A. Fist, the

B. A first, a

C. The first, the

D. First, /

27. The store sells_________ dresses a month.

A. several thousand

B. several thousands

C. several of thousand

D. several thousand

28. Over_________pounds have been raised for the poor children there.

A. four million

B. four million of

C. four millions

D. four millions of

29. What work are you going to give _______?

A. us two

B. two us

C. the two us

D. the us two

30. She received a video camera for her_________birthday.

A. fourteen

B. the fourteenth

C. fourteenth

D. fourteen's

31. I remember that_________of the month was a holiday and I didn't go to work.

A. third

B. three

C. one third

D. the third

32. I've asked her twice. Shall I ask her_________?

A. a third time

B. three times

C. third time

D. the third time

33. _________of the machines on show are new items.

A. Two fifth

B. Two fifths

C. The two fifth

D. Two five

34. Only five students climbed to the top of the hill. I was______.....

A. a fifth

B. fifth

C. the five

D. the fifth

35. The bottle was about_________full then.

A. three-quarters

B. three quarter

C. third quarter

D. third quarters

36. Christmas Day is on_________each year.

A. December, 25

B. 25th of December

C. the December 25

D. the 25th of December

37. I think_________is the worst part of the play.

A. act 5th

B. 5th act

C. act 5

D. the act 5

38. I found_________were too hard for the students.

A. half of exercises

B. the half of exercises

C. the half exercises

D. half of the exercises

39. I guess she is by now in _________.

A. her late forties

B. her late forty

C. her late forty's

D. the forties

40. It is_________I have been here. So I know the city well.

A. six times

B. the sixth time

C. sixth time

D. a sixth time

(二)代词

一、人称代词

1.人称代词主格、宾格表见七年级上册95页。

2.人称代词的用法

(1)主格人称代词在句子中作主语。宾格人称代词在句子中通常作(动词或介词的)宾语,也可以作表语。如:—Who is it?是谁呀?—It's me.是我。We like him very much.我们非常喜欢他。

(2)人称代词在than 之后与其他人或事物进行比较时,用主格或宾格都可以。如:He is three years older than me/I.他比我大三岁。

3. 人称代词的语序

几个人称代词并列作主语时,它们的顺序是:

单数形式(二、三、一)you, he and I 复数形式(一、二、三)we, you and they

二、物主代词

1. 物主代词分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词表

2. 形容词性物主代词在句中作定语修饰名词,一般不单独使用。

His parents are both office workers. My name is Jack.

3. 名词性物主代词常用来避免和前面已提及的名词重复。相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”

--- This is my dictionary. Where is yours?

--- It’s over there, on the bed.

My idea is quite different from hers.

4. 名词性物主代词可用在of 后面作定语,相当于“of + 名词所有格”,表示带有部分概念或有一定的感

情色彩。He is a friend of mine. 他是我的一个朋友。

三、反身代词

2. 反代词的用法

反身代词在句中可作宾语、表语,不能作主语,但可

作主语或宾语的同位语,必须与被指代的人在人称和

数上保持一致,用来加强语气,表示“本人,亲自”的

意思。如:I can look after myself.我可以照顾好我自

己。The box itself is not so heavy.箱子本身并不重。

注意:反身代词用作宾语时,常用于下列搭配:

teach oneself (sth.)=learn (sth.) by oneself 自学

help oneself to...随便吃/拿……enjoy oneself 玩得愉快

dress oneself 自己穿衣look after oneself 照顾自己

all by oneself 独自地leave sb.by oneself 把某人独自

留下come to oneself 苏醒by oneself 亲自

四、指示代词

(1) 指示代词列表如下:

(2). 指示代词的用法

1.指示代词起指示作用,既可指物也可指人,在句中可作主语、宾语或相当于形容词的定语。如: This girl is Mary. 这个女孩是玛丽。(相当于形容词,作定语) Those are my teachers. 那些是我的老师。(作主语) 2.this 和 these 指在时间或空间上较近的人或事物,也可指下面将要讲到的事物。如: This is a pen and that is an eraser. 这是一支钢笔,那是一块橡皮。

3.that 和 those 指在时间或空间上较远的人或事物;也可指代前面提到的事物,以避免重 复,多用于比较级的句子中。如: The weather in Beijing is different from that in London. 北京的气候与伦敦的(气候)不同。 4.打电话时,询问对方或介绍自己的身份,常用 this 指代自己“我”,用 that 指代对方“你”。如: —Hello, who's that ?你是谁呀? —This is Jenny speaking.我是珍妮。 五、疑问代词

疑问代词 疑问代词在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和表语。 六、普通不定代词及复合不定代词

㈠普通不定代词

1. 初中阶段常用普通不定代词列表如下:

2. 普通不定代词的用法 ⑴ some 与 any

some 和any 均表示“一些”,既可修饰可数名词也可修饰不可数名词; some 一般用于肯定句中,any 多用于疑问句、否定句和条件句中。但在疑问句中,若要表示说话人希望得到肯定的回答或表达请求、建议时应用some 。

There aren’t any students in the classroom. --- Would you like some coffee? --- Yes, please.

⑵ many 与 much

many 修饰可数名词复数,还可以与表示程度的副词so, too, as, how 连用。much 修饰不可数名词,也可以与表示程度的副词so, too, as, how 连用。 There are too many mistakes in your exercises. He never eats so much breakfast. He has got too much work to do. ⑶ either 与 neither

either 指两个之中的其中一个, neither 指两个人或物中一个也不。常构成固定搭配either/neither of

+ 名词(代词)的复数+谓语动词(第三人称单数);Either … or … 和 neither … nor … , 当连接两个主语时, 谓语动词应与离它最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。

There trees on either side of the street. Neither of the books good.

Either you or I going to America. Neither you nor he wrong.

⑷ both 与all

both 表示“两者都”,常与and 连用;all 指三者或三者以上都。

Both she and I are students. Both planes are good.

All of us should go there. They all agree to stay here.

⑸ each 与every

each 和every 都表示“每一个”,each 强调个别,当它们作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。every强调整体情况,修饰名词时谓语动词也要用单数形式。另外,each可指两个或两个以上的人或物,而every 只可指三个或三个以上的人或物。

There are trees on each side of the road.

Every student passed the exam.

Each of us wears a yellow T-shirt.

今天你有什么特别的事情要告诉我吗?

Listen to me, boys and girls. I have something to tell you.

同学们,听我说,我有一些事情要告诉你们。

--- Is there anything in the cup? 杯子里有东西吗?

---No, There is nothing.没有,什么也没有。

注意:

1. 当句子的主语是指人的复合不定代词,如everybody,nobody,anyone等时,其反意疑问句的主语通常用代词they;当句子的主语是指物的复合不定代词,如everything,anything,something,nothing等时,其反意疑问句的主语通常用代词it。

Everybody is here, aren’t they? 大家都在这,是吗?

Everything is ready, isn’t it? 一切都准备好了,是吗?

2. 当形容词或else(另外)修饰复合不定代词something,everything,everyone等时,形容词或else必须放在复合不定代词的后面。

小明,我有重要的事情要告诉你。

我们还需要一个助手。你能再给我们中找一个吗?

3. everyone的意思等同于everybody,只能指人;every one既可指人也可指物,还可以和of短语连用。

I would like everyone to be happy. 我希望人人都幸福。

Everyone/Every one likes Mary. 大家都喜欢玛丽。

I have kept every one of her letters. 我把她的每一封信都保存了下来。

She took my bottles of whisky and emptied every one down the sink.

她把我的威士忌酒一瓶一瓶全给倒进水池里去了。

七、代词it

㈠it的用法

1. 指代前面提到过的事物。This is not my book. It is Jim’s.

2. 代替指示代词this或that。--- What’s this? --- It’s a pencil.

3. 指婴儿或不明身份的人。

Someone is knocking at the door. Please go and see who it is.

有人在敲门,请去看看是谁?

4. 表示时间或季节。--- What’s the time now? --- It’s ten o’clock.

5. 表示天气。What’s the weather like today? --- It’s sunny.

6. 表示距离。How far is it from your school to your home?

7. 用作形式主语,常用于下列句型中:

⑴It’s + adj. + ( for sb.) to do sth. (对于某人来说)做某事怎么样

It is important for us to work hard. 对我们来说努力工作很重要。

⑵It’s time to do/for/that… It’s time to get up/ for lunch.

⑶It seems that... 看起来好像… It seems that he is quite happy. 他看起来好像很高兴。

⑷I t’s one’s turn to do sth. 轮到某人做… It’s your turn to sing. 该你唱歌了。

⑸It’s + adj. + that 从句It’s necessary that you should be present at the meeting.

8. 作形式主语Do you think it necessary to learn to wait in line?

你认为学习排队等候有必要吗?

9. 引导强调句型

It is/ was + 被强调部分+ that / who / whom + 其他成分

It was on that cold night that we saw an exciting film.

㈡it, one, that 作代词时的区别

1. it 特指上下文提到的同一个对象是同一个事物。

The book is mine. It’s very interesting. 这本书是我的,它很有趣。

2. one 泛指上下文提及的同类事物中的一个,同类而不同一。

--- Who has a pen? --- I have one.

3. that 常用于比较结构中,代替前面提到的名词,以避免重复。

The weather in Beijing is colder than that in Guangzhou in winter.

冬天北京的天气比广州的天气冷。

代词易混淆考点

一、both, all, either, any, neither, none

(1)both 指两者“都”,表示肯定,在句中可作主语、宾语和定语,后接复数名词。反义词是neither。

(2)all 指三者(或三者以上)的“全部,都,所有,整个”,表示肯定,后接可数名词复数(作主语时谓语动词用复数)和不可数名词(作主语时谓语动词用单数)。反义词为none。注意:“all the+名词”与“the whole+名词”有所区别。如:all the students 所有学生the whole day 整天all the trees 所有的树木the whole forest 整片森林

(3)either 指两者中的“任何一个”,有时也指“两个都”,作主语时谓语动词用单数。

(4)neither 指两者“都不”,表示否定,作主语时谓语动词用单数。

(5)none 指三者(或三者以上)“都不,没有一个”,表示否定。作主语时,谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。

二、little, a little, few, a few

三、other, the other, the others, another

(2)another 指三者或三者以上之中的另一个人或物,或在原来基础上增加一个。常修饰或代替单数名词。注意:another+数词+复数名词=数词+more+复数名词,表示“另外几个或再多几个……”。如:another two days=two more days 再多两天,另外两天

(3)others=other+复数名词,无明确的范围,意为“其余的”。可以构成搭配“some..., others...”,表示“一些……,其余的……”。

(4)the other 指两者之中的另一个(特指剩下的那一个)人或事物。可以构成搭配“one..., the other...”,表示“一个……,另一个……”。the other 也可接复数可数名词,表示“其余(他)所有的……”。

(5)the others=the other+复数名词,表示特定范围内除去一部分后剩下的全部,作主语时谓语动词用复数形式。

课堂练习:

一、用所给代词的适当形式或合适的代词填空

1.She taught _____ (I) English.

2.This is _____ (they) house.______ (my) is next door.

3 .My best friend Jia Mei learns English by ______ (her) every day.

4.These are my books. Those are ____ (he).

5.The little child is too young to look after ________ (him).

6.Please give _______ (he) some sugar.

7.She gave ______ (they) the story books.

8.This dictionary doesn't belong to ____ (your).

9._____ (we) monitor always helps _____ (we) with English.

10 .Kate and her sister went on holiday with a cousin of ______ (their).

11._____ (he) father is a bookseller.

12.Xiaoming has a black hat, and his sister has a blue ____.

13._____ is 30 minutes' walk from my home to the company.

14.We are all from China._____ of us is English.

15.The population of China is much larger than ____ of Japan.

初中英语中考语法重难考点:数词和代词复习讲义(含练习与答案)

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表示分数时,分子用基数词,分母用序数词。当分子大于1时,分母要用复数形式。 “分数+ of + 限定词+ 复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;“分数+ of + 限定词+ 不可数名词/单数可数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 经典习题 1.The building has___floors and we live on the___floor. A.thirtieth;three B.thirty;third C.thirty;three D.thirtieth;third 2.—Food safety has become one of the hottest topics recently.—Yeah, it receives___Internet hits a day. A.thousands B.thousands of C.thousand D.thousand of 3.—Don’t give up! Perhaps___hard task needs more of your effort. —I won’t. I’ll have___second try any way. A.an;a B.the;a C.a;the D.the;the 4.—Mum,___of the apples___gone bad.

名词冠词数词代词介词

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代词和数词习题

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最全英语代词的用法讲解及练习题

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英语之中名词 代词 动词 形容词 冠词 数词 副词 介词 连词 感叹词

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8、介词的定义和特征介词是一种用来表示词与词, 词与句之间的关系的词。在句中不能单独作句字成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。 (二) 1、名词,人或事物的名称 3、代词,代替名词或者数词(比如some就是代替数目) 3、动词,动作或状态 4、数词,表示数目或顺序(比如序数词,5th就是表示顺序) 5、形容词,人或事物的性质或状态(因为形容词一般修饰名词) 6、副词,动作的特征或性状特征(因为副词一般修饰动词或形容词) 7、冠词,表示名词的泛指或特指 8、介词,表示名词或代词与其他词的关系(因为介词后面一半紧跟 名词,代词或其他名词性结构) 9、连词,连接词与词,短语与短语,句子与句子 10、感叹词,表示说话时的感情或语气

代词 数词

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