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吉大自考计算机专业英语(一)

计算机专业英语(一)14日14:30-17:00共11页(内部资料严禁外泄)

第一部分

I.Multiple choices

1. Which of the following feature of a word processor becomes more useful with the growth of the amount of text? ( A )

A. wording searching

B. grammar checking

C. word counting

D. spell checking

2. Which of the following feature of a word processor can show underline, bold, italic, font and other typing styles on the screen? (B)

A. WYSIWGY

B. WYSIWYG

C. WSYIWYG

D. WYSWIYG

3. Which of the following does NOT belong to hidden characters or commands?(A)

A. retrieval

B. spaces

C. returns

D. paragraph endings

4. Before typing in any data, a user needs to C .

A. edit the cell B .save the cell

C. select the cell

D. change the cell

5. Each cell of a worksheet can hold____A___.

A. one piece of data

B. two pieces of data

C. three pieces of data

D. four pieces of data

6. Where is the Entry Bar of a worksheet?(A)

A. below the icons of the worksheet

B. above the icons of the worksheet

C. at the left of the icons of the worksheet

D. at the right of the icons of the worksheet

7. All functions in spreadsheets start with ____B____.

A. a dollar sign

B. an equal sign

C. question mark

D. star

8. Which of the following can NOT be created by spreadsheets?(B)

A. bar chart

B. start chart

C. three-dimensional chart

D. pie chart

9. Which of the following message can be sent by E-mail without an attachment? (A)

A. text message

B. graphical message

C. audio message

D. video message

10. Which of the following can be applied for an E-mail message without an attachment? (D)

A. bold

B. underline

C. italics

D. none

11. Which of the following does NOT belong to one of the E-mail advantages? (D)

A. instantaneousness

B. efficiency

C. group sending feature

D. none

12. A private network-based E-mail system is not for ___B_____.

A. corporate users

B. home users

C. school users

D. hospital users

13. An E-mail server can be considered as a ____C_____.

A. powerful operating system

B. high-duty database system

C. high-configuration computer

D. practical Internet application

14. Which of the following is called a searching engine?(B)

A. Web server

B. Web browser

C. Web site

D. Web address

15. Which of the following is NOT an Internet application?(C)

A. IRC

B. audio chatting

C. file compiling

D. video chatting 16. To start an online chatting, a user needs to know____D____.

A. the software name of an IRC client

B. the Web service provider of an IRC client

C. the program name of an IRC client

D. the Web address of an IRC client

17. Once a user starts an IRC client, the server on the IRC service provider side will provide the user a____A____.

A. channel

B. server

C. hardware

D. program

18. What does the WWW stand for?

(A)

A. World Wide Web

B. World Wide Work

C. World Wide Watch

D. World Wide Wave

19. Which of the following is the primary function of the WWW? (A)

A. accessing resources

B. sending and receiving E-mails

C. IRC

D. Video conferencing

20. Which of the following is NOT

supported by the WWW? (D)

A. Gopher

B. FTP

C.

Usenet D. File compiling

21. To accommodate a binary number,

which of the following of a computer

doesn't have more digits than those for

decimal numbers do? (D)

A register B. bus C.

port D. keyboard

22. Which of the following unit

provides signals to start the operations

in the ALU, the memory and the

input/output unit? (D)

A. logical unit

B. arithmetic unit

C. input/output unit

D. control

unit

23. What does IC stand for? (B)

A. Intelligent Card

B. Intelligent

Circuit C. Integrated Card D.

Integrated Circuit

24. How many the most influential

components does a computer system

configuration include?(B)

A. 3

B. 4

C. 5

D. 6

25. Which of the following does NOT

belong to one of the most influential

components of a computer system

configuration? (B)

A. the memory

B. the

operating system

C. the input/output devices

D. the storage devices

26. Which of the following memory

will lose the data stored in it when the

power is gone or a malfunction occurs?

(C)

A. the ROM

B. the virtual

memory C. the RAM

D. the buffer

27. The permanently useful data is

stored in which of the following(A)

memory?

A. the ROM

B. the virtual

memory C. the RAM D.

the buffer

28. Which of the following does NOT

belong to a computer hardcopy output?

(D)

A. a graph

B. a photo

C. a text files

D. voice

29. Which of the following does NOT

belong to a computer hardcopy output

device? (B)

A. a plotter

B. a monitor

C. an ink-jet printer

D. a laser

printer

30. Which of the following belongs to

an impact computer hardcopy output

device? (A)

A. a plotter

B. an ink-jet

printer C. a laser printer D.

monitor

31. Which of the following is the

major advantage of a DVD-ROM over

a CD-ROM? (D)

A. portability

B. price

C. material

D. capacity

32. Which of the following is the

major advantage of a CD-R or a

CD-RW over a CD-ROM or a

DVD-ROM? (D)

A. speed

B. price

C. material

D. writing data

33. Which of the following is the

major advantage of a U-disk over a

hard disk? (C)

A. speed

B. price

C.

easy to carry D. writing

data

34. Which of the following is NOT

one of the most commonly used

software-relevant terminologies? (A)

A. data

B. program

C. operating system

D.

application software

35. Which of the following is the most

fundamental concept of computer

software? (B)

A. operating system

B.

program C. application software

D. system software

36. What is a computer program? (D)

A. a set of operations and tasks

B. a set of operations and data

C. a set of tasks and data

D. a set of instructions

37. Which of the following does NOT

belong to computer system software?

(C)

A. operating system

B. system utility

C. word processing program

D. language compiler

38. Which function of a word

processor can ensure typing

correctness?(C)

A. hidden commands

B.

typeface C. spell checking

D. space

39. What do users need to do with the

spell-checked files to ensure their

correctness?(B)

A. proof check

B. proofread

C. through check

D. double-check

40. Which of the following is NOT

one of a word processor's

functions?(C)

A. spell-checking typed text

B. grammar checking typed text

C. compiling typed text

D. counting typed text

41. Which of the following is NOT

one of the most commonly used

software-relevant terminologies? (A)

A. data

B. program

C.

operating system D. application

software

42. A computer processes __________

into____B___.

A. information/data

B.

data/information C. facts/data D.

information/facts

43. Data flow into the computer as

D .

A. output

B. a program

C. a

process D. input

44. Information flows from a

computer as ____A_____.

A. output

B. memory

C.

a program D. input

45. The ___B_____distinguishes a

computer from a calculator.

A. processor

B. stored program

C. memory

D. output

46. Data and program instructions are

stored in ___D_____ .

A. the processor

B. an output

device C. the stored program D.

memory

47. The computer component that

actually manipulates the data

is__C___.

A. main memory

B. an input

device C. the processor

D. an output device

48. The physical components of a

computer are collectively

called__D___.

A. peripherals

B. software

C. boards

D. hardware

49. Programs are known collectively

as____B_____.

A . secondary storage

B .

software C . stored programs

D . hardware

50. A physical switch is

B ; its setting is .

A. software/hardware

B.

hardware/software C. hardware/data

D. data/information

51. A ____B_____ holds enough bits

to store a single character.

A. word

B. byte

C. bit

D. chip

52. A __________is a group of

____C_____

A. bit/bytes

B. byte/words

C. word/bytes

D. character/bytes

53. The " digit-times-place-value "rule

work, with but not with__A__.

A. numbers/ characters

B.

bits/bytes C. bytes/words D.

characters/numbers

54. A location in memory is accessed

by its____A_____.

A. address

B. value

C. content

D. register

55. When memory is

C .its contents are not

changed.

A. written

B. accessed

C. read

D. it's always changed

56. The programmer can read and

write B .

A. ROM

B. RAM

C. words

D. bytes

57. What type of memory can only be

read? (B)

A. registers

B. ROM

C. RAM

D. words

58. The processor fetches and

executes____C____.

A. clock pulses

B. data

C. instructions

D. information

59. The part of an instruction that tells

the processor what to do is the

___D__.

A. operand

B. pulse

C .statement D. operation code

60. The processor's, components are

synchronized by___D____.

A. instructions

B. data

C.

information D. clock pulses

61. Which processor component

executes instructions? (C)

A. instruction register

B.

instruction control unit

C. arithmetic and logic unit

D. main

memory

62. The basic input device on a small

computer is a ___C____ .

A. display screen

B.

printer C. keyboard D.

card reader

63. The basic output device on a small

computer is a____B___ .

A. keyboard

B. display

screen C. diskette

D. plotter

64. A D generates hard-

copy output.

A. display unit

B. screen

C. monitor

D. printer

65. A display screen is divided into a

grid of ____C____.

A. bytes

B. bits

C. pixels

D. words

66. External devices are linked to a

small computer system through__B__.

A. channels

B. control

units C. plugs

D. interfaces

67.The D translates

between the computer's internal codes

and a peripheral device's external

codes.

A. processor

B. interface

C. memory

D. register

68. A A terminal

communicates with a distant computer

over data transmission lines.

A. remote

B.

display C. printing

D. local

69. The interference that distorts

electronic signals transmitted over a

distance is called__C____.

A. static

B.

interference C. noise

D. a spike

70. A network can be

worldwide.

A. Wide area

B. Metropolitan

area C. Local area D.

Campus area

71. B networks

usually span tens of kilometers.

A. Wide area

B. Metropolitan

area C. Local area D.

Ethernet

72. The Open Systems Interconnection

(OSI)reference model is based on a

proposal developed by____D_____.

A. ANSI

B. IEEE

C. IAB

D. ISO

73. B is concerned

with controlling the operation of the

subnet.

A. The transport layer

B. The

network layer C. The application

layer D. The data link layer

74. A is concerned

with transmitting raw bits over a

communication channel.

A. The physical layer

B. The

presentation layer C. The network

layer D. The data link layer

75. The main task of D

is to transform a raw transmission

facility into a line that appears free of

undetected transmission errors to the

network layer.

A. The physical layer

B. The

session layer C. The network layer

D. The data link layer

76. B allows users

on different machines to establish

sessions between them.

A. The physical layer

B. The

session layer C. The network layer

D. The data link layer

77. The ____D_____ serves as a

hardware/software interface.

A. system

B. Application

program C control unit D.

operating system

78. The source of a computer’s logic

is _____B_____.

A. hardware

B. software

C.

data D. the user

79. A disk drive is limited to a

few___C____.

A. tasks

B. program

functions C. primitive operations

D. I/O operations

80. Programmers write

___B_____code.

A. object

B. source

C.

machine-level D. load module

II.Cloze

Passage 1:

A database system gives us a way of

1(B) together specific pieces or

lists of 2(B) that are relevant to

us in our jobs or our lives. It also

provides a way to 3(D) and

maintain that information in a central

place. The first commercial computers

were really 4(B) more than

dedicated database machine used to

gather, sort and report on census

information. To this day, one of the

most common reasons for purchasing

a computer is to 5(C) a database

system.

供选择的答案:

1: (A)gather (B) gathering

(C)get (D)getting

2: (A) data (B) information

(C) mail (D) message

3: (A)build (B) copy

(C)remember (D) store

4: (A) anything (B) nothing

(C) something (D)thing

5: (A)find (B) load

(C)run (D) install

Passage II.

Toolboxes and menus in many

application programs were 6(B)

for working with the mouse. The

mouse controls a pointer on the screen.

You move the pointer by 7(B) the

mouse over a flat surface in the

direction you want the pointer to move.

If you run out of 8(C) to move

the mouse, lift it up and put it down

again. The pointer moves only when

the mouse is 9(D) the flat

surface. Moving the mouse pointer

across the screen does not affect the

document, the pointer simply 10(B)

a location on the screen. When you

press the mouse button, something

happens at the location of the pointer.

供选择的答案:

6:(A)assigned (B)designed

(C)desired (D)expressed

7:(A)putting (B)sliding

(C)serving (D) taking

8: (A) board (B)place

(C)room (D) table

9:(A)getting (B)going

(C)teaching (D) touching

10: (A)constructs (B)indicates

(C)instructs (D) processes

Passage III

The boot is to 11(B) automatic

routine that clears the memory, loads

the operating system, and prepares the

computer for 12(C) Included in

the computer's read-only memory

(ROM is the power-on-self-test, which

13(A) when the power is switched

on (a cold hoot.

After a system 14(B) or

lockup occurs, you usually must boot

the computer again, or reboot, by

15(A) the Reset button or Ctrl + Alt

+ Del (a warm boot).

11: (A)clear (B) initiate (C)

insert (D) push

12: (A) create (B)handle

(C)use (D)route

13:(A)executes (B)exits (C)

loads (D)reads

14: (A) communicate (B) crash

(C) create (D)handle

15: (A) pressing (B)pulling (C)

seeing (D)writing

PassageVI:

Perhaps you have been asking the

questions: Is everyone moving to

16(C) ? If I don't step to the 17(A)

user interface, will I be left all along at

the cold 18(A) command line?

Don't throw away your

19(D) . No one is 20(C) DOS's

death knell yet. DOS and its

applications people have using for

years are not going to stop working

overnight.

供选择的答案:

16: (A) DOS (B) UNIX (C)

Windows (D) Windows NT

17: (A) graphical (B) software (C)

command line (D) Windows NT

18: (A) DOS (B) UNIX (C) Windows (D) Windows NT 19: (A)hardware (B) text (C) Windows (D) software 20: (A) software (B) hardware (C) sounding (D) text III.Mark the following sentences with T ( true) or F (false) according to the dialogue

1. The smallest unit of the memory is the magnetic cell. T

2. Magnetic cells use the "write" and "read" currents with same direction to store and retrieve data. F

3. The most influential component of a computer system configuration is the memory. F

4. The system clock is the brain of a computer. F

5. Both ink-jet and laser printers are non-impact printers; they are based on the same principle. F

6. Ink-jet printers have pins in their printing heads to form dots to produce printed results. F

7. A plotter is the popular hardcopy output device commonly used in the education sector. F

8. Word processors ease much of tedium associated typing, proofing. and manipulating words. T

9. The real strength of a word processor is its ability to store, retrieve , and change data. T

10. The implementation of the WWW is based on a standard client-server model. T

11. All V on Neumann type digital computers consist of the input/output unit, the arithmetic unit, networking unit, the control unit and the memory. F

12. A scanner belongs to the input/output device. T

13. A binary number needs more computer resource to accommodate than a decimal number. T

14. The operations on decimal numbers are much easier and need much less time than in a binary system. F

15. HTML is so important to the WWW that it is recognized every where on the WWW. F

16. The Web server is the only component of the WWW that is able to read the HTML. F

17. E-mail is a method of sending and receiving messages on the Internet. F

18. Generally speaking, most of E-mail systems do allow text formatting. F

19. Users have to attach word-formatted texts to their E-mail messages if they have to send word-formatted texts. T

20. Instantaneousness and high efficiency are major advantages of the E-mail application T

IV.Match the following two columns 1. Computer software A. provides support for application software. 1-C 2. System utilities B refers to Microsoft Disk Operating System. 2-F

3. System software C is a set of computer programs. 3-A

4. Operating systems D. has been widely used in CAD programs.4-J

5. MS-DOS E. are more suitable for PC users. 5-B

6. The Unix F. can be understood as system 6-D

tune-up programs.

7. The Linux G. are truly powerful enterprise-level computing tools.7-I

8. The Unix and Linux H. is the first Windows operating system 8-G

in a real sense.

9. MS Windows I. has been adopted for Internet servers.9-E

10. Windows 95 J. are preloaded onto computers by computer makers.10-H

11. The storage device A. sends out pulses regularly. 11-E

12. A CPU includes B. faster than a RAM. 12-C

13. The wide of the bus C. the ALU and the controller. 13-J 14. The system clock D.

is used to read and write data.14-A

15. ROM E.

belongs to the system configuration of

a computer.15-I

16. A buffer runs F.

the buffer first when it needs data

16-B

to

operate.

17. A CPU searches G.

exchange sections of data when 17-F

necessary.

18. A hard disk and a RAM H.

is the extension of the RAM.18-G

19. A RAM I.

is able to keep the data stored in19-D

it when the power is gone.

20. The virtual memory J. is

also called the "word length" 20-H

V.Translating

1. Internet resource access is the

primary function of the World Wide

Web.

万维网的主要功能是提供互联网的

访问服务。

2.The WWW can be described as an

internet application platform.

我们可以把万维网描述为一个互联

网应用平台。

3. User must get their E-mail systems

setup first before they can use them.

用户必须在电子邮件系统设置完毕

后才能使用这些系统。

4.MS-DOS is a command line

interface-based operating system.

MS-DOS 是命令行界面型操作系

统。

5.We have the input/output and store

devices to go.

我们还有输入/输出设备和存储设

备有待讨论。

6. Gopher, FTP, Usenet and Web sites

are the ways the WWW offers to

access the resources located on the

Internet.

万维网提供Gopher、FTP、Usenet

和Web sites 等访问互联网资源的途

径。

7. With E-mail services, computer

users can receive and send messages

in a pretty convenient way.

有了电子邮件系统,计算机用户就

能方便的收发信息。

8. A user can’t start receiving and

sending messages without an E-mail

account.

没有电子邮件账户用户无法开始

收发信息。

9. A user needs to select the cell where

date goes first and then type in the

date.

用户得先选择输入数据的单元然

后输入数据。

10.Operating system is the most

important type of computer system

software.

操作系统是最重要的计算机系统

软件。

参考答案

I.

1、A

2、B

3、A

4、C

5、

A 6、A 7、

B 8、B 9、A

10、D

11、D 12、B 13、C 14、B

15、C 16、D 17、A 18、A

19、A 20、D

21、D 22、D 23、B 24、B

25、B 26、C 27、A 28、D

29、B 30、A

31、D 32、D 33、C 34、A

35、B 36、D 37、C 38、C 39、

B 40、C

41、A 42、B 43、D 44、A 45、

B 46、D 47、

C 48、

D 49、B

50、B

51、B 52、C 53、A 54、A 55、

C 56、B 57、B 58、C 59、D

60、D

61、C 62、C 63、B 64、D 65、

C 66、B 67、

D 68、A 69、C

70、A

71、B 72、D 73、B 74、A 75、

D 76、B 77、D 78、B 79、C

80、B

II

Passage I

1: (B)2: (B) 3: (D)4:

(B) 5:(C)

Passage II

6: (B)7:(B)8:(C)9:

(D) 10: (B)

Passage III.

11: (B)12: (C)13: (A)

14:(B)15: (A)

Passage VI

16:(C) 17:(A) 18:(A) 19:

(D) 20:(C)

III.

1.T

2.F

3.F

4.F

5.F

6.F

7.F

8.T

9.T 10.T

11.F 12.T 13.T 14.F 15.F

16.F 17.F 18.F 19.T 20.T

Ⅳ.

1-C 2-F 3-A 4-J 5-B 6-D

7-I 8-G 9-E 10-H

11-E 12-C 13-J 14-A 15-I

16-B 17-F 18-G 19-D 20-H

V.

1.万维网的主要功能是提供互联网

的访问服务。

2.我们可以把万维网描述为一个互

联网应用平台。

3. 用户必须在电子邮件系统设置完

毕后才能使用这些系统。

4. MS-DOS 是命令行界面型操作系

统。

5. 我们还有输入/输出设备和存储设

备有待讨论。

6. 万维网提供Gopher、FTP、Usenet

和Web sites 等访问互联网资源的途

径。

7. 有了电子邮件系统,计算机用户就

能方便的收发信息。

8. 没有电子邮件账户用户无法开始

收发信息。

9. 用户得先选择输入数据的单元然

后输入数据。

10. 操作系统是最重要的计算机系

统软件。

第二部分

1. How many layers does the ISO/OSI

mode have? (seven )

2. External devices are linked to a

small computer system through

(interfaces ).

3.CPU has only two fundamental

sections: the arithmetic and logic unit

and (the control unit ).

4. Objected-based logic models are

used for ( describing data at the

conceptual and view levels )

5. arithmetic and logic unit executes

instructions

6. Which is an simply the application

of internet technology within an

internal or closed

group?( intranet )

7.CD-ROM belongs to (optical laser

disk )

8. A collection of conceptual tools for

describing data, data relationships,

data semantics and data

constraints is a (data model )

9.The Open Systems Interconnection

(OSI)reference model is based on a

proposal developed by ( ISO )

10. The software that allows one or

many persons to use and/or modify

this data is a (DBMS )

11. The physical components of a

computer are collectively called

(hardware ).

12.. The most popular processor

interconnection topology is the

(hypercube ).

13. The part of an instruction that tells

the processor what to do is the

(operand ).

14. The part of an instruction that tells

the processor what to do is the

(operation code ).

15.The permanently useful data is

stored in ( the ROM )

16. The interference that distorts

electronic signals transmitted over a

distance is called (noise ).

17. All functions in spreadsheets start

with (an equal sign ).

18. An E-mail server can be

considered as a (powerful operating

system )

19. A programming technique that

allows you to view concepts as a

variety of objects is called (object

oriented programming )

20. The interference that distorts

electronic signals transmitted over a

distance is called (noise ).

21. A program instruction or a piece of

data is stored in a specific primary

storage location called an (address )

22. A bus that is used to control the

access to and the use of the data and

address bus is called (control bus)

23. A location in memory is accessed

by its (address ).

24. A small piece of code that can be

transported over the Internet and

executed on the recipient’s machine.

The sentence describes (applet )

25. An E-mail server can be

considered as a (high-configuration

computer ) .

26. A protocol is a set of

(regulations ).

27. Which networks usually span tens

of kilometers?( Metropolitan area )

28. A computer system has input,

output, storage, and (CPU ).

29. All Intranet related documents are

written in ( HTML )

30. The WWW is based on which of

the following standards? (client-server

model )

31. WWW stand for World Wide Web

32. All functions in spreadsheets start

with (an equal sign ).

33. Programmers write ( source

code ).

34. Primary storage provides the

CPU with temporary storage for

programs and data

35. When a CPU needs the data to

operate, it goes where first? (the

cache ).

36. When hypertext pages are mixed

with other media, the result is

called(hypermedia )

37. The “brain”of a computer

system is (CPU )

38. A program instruction or a piece of

data is stored in a specific primary

storage location called an (address )

39. The ISO/OSI mode has (seven )

layers

40. What does a worksheet mean? (a

working area framed by letters and

numbers )

41. Before typing in any data, a user

needs to (select the cell).

42. A computer system has four parts,

they are output, storage, processing

components and (input )

43. Another name for primary storage

is (RAM ).

44. The Open Systems Interconnection

(OSI) reference model is based on a

proposal developed by (ISO ).

45. The basic output device on a small

computer is a (display screen ).

46. To prevent user programs from

interfering with the proper operation

of the system, the hardware was

modified to create two models: (User

mode and monitor mode )

47. A data model is a collection of

conceptual tool for describing (data,

data relationship, data semantics, data

constraints )

48. What kind of computer would

apply several instructions to each

datum it fetches form memory?

(MISD )

49. What is a computer program? (a

set of instructions )

50. A communication pathway

connecting two or more devices is a

(channel )

51. How many basic units do today's

digital computers consist of? ( 4 )

52. LCD is based on TFT

53. Optical laser disk includes

CD-ROM, magneto-optical disk and

(WORM disk )

54. A special type of primary storage

which cannot be altered by the

programmer is called (ROM )

55. A list of protocols used by a

certain system , one protocol per layer,

is called a (protocol stack )

56. The realization of the mobile

internet relies on a new set of

standards ,known as the (WAP )

57. What does A worksheet mean? (an

EXCEL program )

58. How many different types of

Entity relationships are

there?( 4 )

59. What kind of computer would

apply one instructions to each datum it

fetches form memory? (SISD )

60.Cache memory is employed by

computer designers to increase

computer system (throughput )

61. The Central Processor has only

two fundamental sections (the control

unit and the arithmetic and logic unit)

62. The Open Systems Interconnection

(OSI) reference model is based on a

proposal developed by (ISO ).

63. The basic output device on a small

computer is a (display screen ).

64. How many parts are there in URL?

(3 )

65. All Intranet related documents are

written in (HTML )

66. A computer system has five parts,

they are input, output, processing

components , control unit and

(storage ).

67. What does HTTP stand for?

(Hypertext Transfer Protocol )

68.How many record-based logical

models are widely used ?( 3 )

69. How many different types of

Entity relationships are

there?( 4 )

70. Normally, how long does a user

need to wait until his/her E-mail

account is ready if he/she applies for it

from an ISP ? (no time )

71. A bus that is used to designate the

source or destination of the data on the

data bus is called ( address bus )

72. . Output devices don’t include

(scanner )

73.What does IC stand for?

(Intelligent Circuit )

74.The software which acts as an

interface between a user of a computer

and the computer hardware is

(operating system )

75.The protocol which downloads

files free of charge from thousands of

computers around the globe is (FTP

protocol )

76. Output devices don’t include

(mouse )

77. Data and program instructions are

stored in (memory ).

78. How many main categories of

optical laser disks are there? (3 )

79. A protocol is a set of

(regulations ).

80. What is a set of programs that

manipulate encoded knowledge to

solve problems in a specialized

domain that 81.normally requires

human expertise? (Expert system )

82.. How many layers does the TCP/IP

layering model have? (5 )

83.. Another name for primary storage

is (RAM ).

84. How many basic operating system

types are there? (3 ).

85.Which one can be rewritten?

(U-DISK )

86.If an object inherits its attributes

from a single parent, it is called(single

inheritance )

87. The “brain”of a computer

system is (CPU )

88. How many classes are the data

models divided into?( 3 )

89. What does the WWW stand for?

(World Wide Web )

90. A computer system has five parts,

they are input, output, storage, control

unit and (processing components ).

91.The way each object combines its

member data and member functions

into a single structure is called

(Encapsulation )

92. The standard query language of

relational database is (SQL )

93. Creating the database and its table

structure uses ( data definition )

94. LCD is based on which of the

following? (TFT )

1.class hierarchy类层次

2.XML可扩展标记语言

3.Intranet内部网

4.data bus数据总线

5.Operating system操作系统

6.CAD计算机辅助设计

7.Neural Networks 神经网络

8. topology analysis拓扑分析

9.ADO ActiveX数据对象

10. multiprogramming 多道程序设

11. ODBC 开放数据库互连

12.VR 虚拟现实

13.cache memory 高速缓冲存

储器

14.FTP文件传输协议

15.system bus系统总线

16. GUI 图形用户界面

17.ROM只读存储器

18.object-oriented programming面向对象编程

19.virtual reality虚拟现实

20.主存(Main memory )

21.调制解调器 (modem )

22.可编程只读存储器(PROM )

23. off-line operation 脱机操作

24.客户端/服务器

(Client/Server )

25.多媒体(Multimedia )

26.虚函数(virtual function )

27. neural network 神经网络

28..VDT 视频显示终端

29.EDI 电子数据交换

30.CAM 计算机辅助制造

31. RDBMS 关系型数据库管理系统

32.database数据库

33.RAM随机存储器

34.工具条( toolbar )

35.统一资源定位符( URL )

36.统一资源标识符( URI )

37.人工智能( Artificial Intelligence )

38. KDD 数据库中的知识发现

39.面向对象(Object Oriented )

40.图形用户接口(Graphical user interface )

41.中央处理器 ( CPU )

42.计算机网络 ( computer network

43.国际互联网( Internet )

44.计算机辅助制造( CAM )

45.软件工程(software engineering)

46.视频压缩(video compression )

47.算术逻辑部件( ALU )

48.计算机应用 (computer application )

49.电子商务(Electronic Business )

50.虚拟现实(virtual reality )

51. EJB 企业Java Beans

52.图形用户接口(Graphical user interface )

53.应用编程接口(API )

54.视频点播VOD

55. memory stick 记忆棒

56.传输控制协议/互联网协议

( TCP/IP )

57.万维网( WWW )

58.地理信息系统( GIS )

59. RAP 快速应用程序原型技术

60.只读存储器 ( ROM )

61.系统软件( system software )

62.磁盘操作系统(DOS )

63.结构化查询语言( SQL )

64.虚拟专用网 ( VPN )

65.开放式系统互联( OSI )

66.个人数字助理(PDA )

67. VLSI 超大规模集成电路

68.带宽(bandwidth )

69.集成电路(integrated circuit )

70.结构化编程 (Structured programming )

71.复杂指令集计算机( CISC )

72.短信消息服务( SMS )

73.PCI 外围设备互连

74.. real time operating system 实时操作系统

75.OODBMS 面向对象的数据库管理系统

76.abstract data type 抽象数据类型CD-R recorders are used to duplicate CDs( T )

The system clock is the brain of a computer. ( F )

Cache memory is much faster than RAM. ( T )

Internet resources are stored on Web servers. ( T )

Windows 2000 is the first Windows operating system in a real sense.( F )

We can view an operating system as a resource manager. ( T )

You can connect 255 devices to a computer by USB. ( F )

The single-sided DVD can store 6.5GB of data. ( F )

Keyboard and mouse are both the

input devices of the computer. ( T )

Cache memory is more expensive than

RAM.( T )

Both the user names and the

passwords must be unique for E-mail

accounts.( F )

ALU is one of the components of

CPU.( T )

JA VA is a Object-Oriented

programming language.( T )

You can connect 120 devices to a

computer by USB. ( T)

PROM is the abbreviation of portable

read –only memory. ( F )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. (T )

Microsoft Windows 2000 is an

operating system of the computer.

( T )

PCI is a popular low-bandwidth bus.

( F )

Printer is the input device of the

computer. ( F )

The system clock sends out pulses

regularly. ( T )

FTP is a protocol of the computer

network. ( T )

HTTP stands for High Transportation

Port. ( F )

A cache runs as fast as a RAM.

( F )

CPU has only one fundamental section:

the control unit. ( F )

Hard disks and floppies operate in

different ways. ( F )

Cache memory is much faster than

RAM. ( T )

VDT stands for video display terminal.

( T )

System bus provides a path for

moving data between system modules.

( F )

CD-ROM stands for compact disk

read-only memory. ( T )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. ( F )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. ( T )

WWW stands for World Wide Web.

( T )

There 3 main categories of optical

laser disks: CD-ROM, DVD and VCD.

( F )

You can connect 255 devices to a

computer by USB. ( F )

JA VA is a Object-Oriented

programming language. ( T )

An OS is the software which acts as an

interface between a user and a

computer. ( T )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. ( T )

Microsoft SQL server 2000 is an

operating system of the computer.

( F )

Microsoft Office 2003 is operating

system software. ( F )

FTP is a protocol of the computer

network. ( T )

The Web browser is used to display

the data stored on the Internet.

( T )

PCI is a popular low-bandwidth bus.

(F )

A buffer's capacity is low and price is

high, and it runs as fast as a RAM.

( F )

Primary storage provides CPU with

temporary storage for programs and

data. (T)

The wide of the bus is also called the

"word length". ( T )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. ( F )

A CPU includes the ALU and the

controller. ( T )

MS-DOS refers to Microsoft Disk

Operating System. ( T )

CD-R recorders are used to duplicate

CDs ( T )

You can connect 255 devices to a

computer by USB. ( F )

Cache memory is much faster than

RAM. ( T )

Printer is the I/O device of the

computer. ( T )

DVD provides CPU with temporary

storage for programs and data.

(F )

JA VA is a structured programming

language. ( F )

C is an Object-Oriented programming

language. ( F )

Internet resources are stored on Web

servers. ( T )

You can connect 127 devices to a

computer by USB. ( T )

MS Office 2000 is the first Windows

operating system in a real sense.

( F )

We can view an operating system as a

output hardware. ( T )

PDA is one of the components of CPU.

( F )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. (F )

Keyboard and mouse are both the

input devices of the computer. ( T )

Cache memory is less expensive than

RAM.( F )

The user name must be unique for

E-mail accounts. ( T )

ALU is one of the components of CPU.

( T )

Keyboard and mouse are both the

input devices of the computer. ( T )

PCI is a popular low-bandwidth bus.

( F )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. ( F )

You can connect 255 devices to a

computer by USB. ( F )

We can view an OS as a resource

manager. ( T )

Windows 95 is the first Windows

operating system in a real sense.

( T )

CD-R recorders can be used to

duplicate CDs( T )

Microsoft Office 2003 is an operating

system software. ( F )

WWW stands for World Wide Web.

( T )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. ( T )

PROM is the abbreviation of portable

read –only memory. ( T )

ROM is the abbreviation of read of

memory. ( F )

Hard disk provides CPU with

temporary storage for programs and

data. (F )

MS-DOS is a Object-Oriented

programming language. ( F )

OS is the software which acts as an

interface between a user and a

computer. ( T )

MS Windows 2000 is a hardware

component of computer. ( F )

FTP is not a protocol of the computer

network. ( F )

C++ language is a structured

programming language. ( F )

Linux is an operating system. ( T )

To format a floppy means that

magnetic areas are created. ( T )

A scanner belongs to the output device.

( F )

URL is used to locate Internet

resources. ( T )

E-mail is a method of sending and

receiving messages on the Internet.

( F )

HTML is used to write Web

pages.( T)

CD-Rrecorders are used to duplicate

CD( T )

XML is used to write Web

pages.( F )

The CPU is the brain of a

computer( T )

Cache memory is as fast as RAM.

( T )

C++ language is a structured

programming language.( F )

Linux is an operating system. ( T )

HTTP is used to locate Internet

resources. ( F )

PCI is abbreviation of peripheral

component interconnect.( T )

A U-disk belongs to the output

device.( T )

E-mail is a method of sending and

receiving messages on the Internet.

( F )

Thread is sometimes

called lightweight process.

A collection that stores objects of the

same data type is referred to as a

homogeneous collection.

A virus scanner is a

program that is designed to check an

entire computer system for known

viruses or suspicious activity.

A stack is a list of items that are

accessible at only one end of the list.

Electronic Business is

the integration of IT and particularly

the Internet into business processes to

change organizations and create new

ones.

3. Cache memory is employed by

computer designers to increase the

computer system throughput .

4.The operating system acts as the

manager of system resources and

allocates them to specific programs

and users as necessary for their tasks.

8. Hubs can be categorized as

either CSMA/CD or full-duplex

repeaters.

Frequency division multiplexing

(FDM) is the technical term

applied to a network system that uses

multiple carrier frequencies to allow

independent signals to travel through a

medium.

The Unified Modeling

Language(UML) is a

graphical language for visualizing ,

specifying , constructing , and

documenting the artifacts of a

software-intensive system.

Data query uses a set of

commands to explore the database

contents and allows the user to convert

the raw data into useful information.

9. Another important object-oriented

concept that relates to the class

hierarchy is that common messages

can be sent to the parent class objects

and all derived subclass objects. In

formal terms, this is called

polymorphism .

10.An entity is an object ,

which can be uniquely distinguished

from other objects.

6.Remote teleworkers also have the

option to have an ISDN line installed

to their home or office , linking them

to the corporate Intranet via a local

internet service provider(ISP) .

11. In predicate calculus , each

predicate is given a name , which

is followed by the list of arguments.

12. Virtual functions utilize a table for

address information.

13.The MAC sublayer defines the

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with

Collision Detection

protocol , which made Ethernet

famous.

14.Pages are viewed with a

browser .

15. An expert system’s knowledge is

obtained from expert sources and

coded in a form suitable for the system

to use in its inference or reasoning

processes.

16. Windows managers

manage the devices used to exchange

information between applications and

users.

17. Methods are similar to the

functions of procedure-oriented

programming.

The C++ class actually serves as a

template or pattern for creating

objects.

18. The private section of a class

limits the availability of data or

methods to the class itself.

19. Flash memory is

intermediate between EPROM and

EEPROM in bith cost and

functionality.

20. Inheritance in object-oriented

programming allows a class to inherit

properties from a class of objects.

21.The Entity-Relationship

model(E-R model) is based

on a perception of a real world which

consists of objects called entities and

relationships among these objects.

22.Linux is an operating

system , which acts as a

communication service between the

hardware and the software of a

computer system.

23. Spooling provides a pool

of jobs which have been read and

waiting to be run.

24. Data management uses a

set of commands to enter , correct ,

delete , and update data within the

database tables.

25. The pattern of the oscillation is

called a waveform .

26. Moore observed that the

number of transistors that could be put

on a single chip was doubling every

year and 27. To reduce design

complexity , most networks are

organized as a series of

layer( levels) , each one built upon

the one below it.

28.correctly predicted that this pace

would continue into the near future.

1.In each of these statements , there is

a list of individuals , which is given by

the argument list , together with

phrases that describe certain relations

among or properties of the individuals

mentioned in the argument list.

在每个陈述中有一个用变元表给出

的个体表,以及描述变元表中那些个

体间的关系或性质的一些短语。

2. Another reason commonly given

that languages like Lisp, TCL, and

Smalltalk are good for prototyping is

that they don’t require you to pin

down decisions early on------ these

languages are semantically rich.

一般认为像Lisp、TCL和Smalltalk

这样一些语言十分适合于原型法的

另一理由,是因为它们不要求你受早

期决定的约束-----这些语言的语义

是很丰富的。

3.We have systems which can see well

enough to “recognize”objects from

photographs , video cameras and other

sensors.

现在有些系统的视觉好得足以“识

别”照片上、摄象机和其他传感器拍

摄得图像上得物体。

4. In the meantime , the lure of a

cheaper and easier-to-maintain intranet

infrastructure brought about by the use

of a relatively standard Web client has

many IS managers enthusiastic about

using Web browsers.

同时,在通过使用比较报纸的Web

客户机而带来的较便宜、较易维护的

内部网基础设施的诱惑下,许多信息

系统的经理对使用Web浏览器很热

情。

5. Work parts are automatically loaded

at central locations on to the handling

system and are routed to the proper

machine tools.

工作部件被自动地装在处理系统的

中心位置,并经由指定路线传送给适

当的机床。

6.In each of these statements , there is

a list of individuals , which is given by

the argument list , together with

phrases that describe certain relations

among or properties of the individuals

mentioned in the argument list.

在每个陈述中有一个用变元表给出

的个体表,以及描述变元表中那些个

体间的关系或性质的一些短语。

7. Even though one can argue that all

programs exhibit some degree of

intelligence , an AI program will go

beyond this in demonstrating a high

level of intelligence to a degree that

equals or exceeds the intelligence

required of a human in performing

some task.

即使有人可能争辩说,所有程序都显

示出某种程度得智能,但AI程序将

超过它,AI程序表现出高的智能等

于或超过了人在完成某个任务中所

需的智能。

8.Geographic information systems are

one of the fastest growing business

applications and later this decade may

be as common as word processing

software and spreadsheet applications.

地理信息系统是发展最快的事物应

用软件之一,这十年后期它会像字处

理软件和电子表格应用软件一样普

及。

9.Warehouse data is often gathered

from sources throughout an enterprise ,

including different applications ,

databases , and computer systems ,

and is likely to be fragmented and

inconsistent.

数据仓库数据经常是从整个企业的

各种来源收集的,包括不同的应用、

数据库与计算机系统等,因而可能是

支离破碎和不一致的。

10. To transport a CAD system

running in one operating system to

another operating system is not as

trivial as recompiling the software.

把在一个操作系统上运行的CAD移

植到另一个不同的操作系统上,并不

像重编译该软件那样简单。

11.All users see the same image; thus, other team members view the scene from an incorrect perspective with the resulting distortion depending upon differences in location within the immersive room.

所有用户看到的是同一个图像;因而,小组其他一些成员从不恰当的视点观察该景象,所产生的失真取决于在沉浸室内位置上的差异。

12.A handheld’s constraints(局限性)mean that it’s usually impossible to directly port a desktop application to a wireless handheld device. For the same reasons, it’s difficult to directly access most Web sites with a handheld device. Web applications are traditionally designed based on the assumption that visitors will have a desktop computer with a large screen and a mouse.

手持设备的局限性意味着它通常不能直接把台式应用程序移植到无线手持设备上,出于同样的理由,用手持设备直接访问多数Web站点也很困难。Web应用程序传统上是基于访问者拥有带大屏幕和鼠标的台式计算机这样的假设而设计的。

13.A new concept called the Storage Area Network(SAN)(存储区域网络)could offer an answer to the increasing amount of data that needs to be stored in an enterprise network environment. By implementing a SAN, users can offload storage traffic from daily network operations while establishing a direct connection between storage elements and servers.

对需要在企业网络环境中存储数据量越来越大的问题,一种称之为存储区域网络(SAN)的新概念可能提供了一个答案。通过实现一个SAN,用户可以在存储设备与服务器之间建立直接连接的同时,把存储传输负荷从日常网络操作中分出来。

14. A Storage Area Network(SAN,存储区域网)does not need to be a physically separate network, either. It can be a dedicated sub-network, carrying only the business-critical I/O traffic between servers and storage devices. A SAN, for example, would not carry general-purpose traffic such as e-mail or other end-user applications. This type of net avoids the unacceptable trade-offs inherent in a single network for all applications SAN不需要在物理上是一个单独的网络。它可以是一个专用的子网,只在服务器与存储设备之间传输关键业务I/O信息。例如,SAN不传送通用意义上的信息,如电子邮件或其它最终用户应用程序。这类网络避免了单一网络中固有的不能接受的拆衷15. Plug and Play(即插即用)——basically a set of PC architecture specifications---is an effort by hardware and software vendors to design intelligence into PCs to handle installation and configuration tasks automatically and without user intervention.

With a plug-and-play system, users can install devices into or remove them from a desktop or mobile PC; dock and undock desktop PCs from a network; and optimally configure the system for different applications without modifying configuration parameters or expansion-card jumper settings.

即插即用——基本上是一组PC机体系结构的规范,是一种由软硬件厂商将智能设计进PC机的工作,以便自动地和无须用户干预地处置安装与配置任务。

有了即插即用系统,用户就能把设备装进或移出台式或移动式PC机,使台式PC机联网或脱网;以及为不同应用最佳地配置系统而无须修改配置参数或扩展卡的跳线装置等。16.IPV6——the next-generation networking protocol——promises to change the way corporate networks and the Internet work.IPv6 (also referred to as IPng or ,simply,v6)will eliminate some of IPv4's shortcomings that have appeared as a result of the global Internet explosion.IPv6 is a

much-needed improvement, promising

easier-to-obtain IP addresses, cheaper

and faster routing, and such features as

quality of service(QOS, 服务质量)

and encryption(加密).

IPv6——下一代的连网协议,有希望

改变公司网络和因特网的工作方式。

IPv6也叫做IPng,或简称v6,将消

除IPv4因全球因特网爆炸性发展而

带来的某些缺点。IPv6是一项非常

需要的改进,它许诺更容易获得IP

地址,更快更便宜建立路由以及具有

较好的服务质量(QOS)和加密等特

点。

17. RISC processors, because they are

software-programmable, provide the

flexibility to adapt to the rapidly

evolving data communications market.

However, they lack ASIC-level

performance because of their

generalized(归一化的) architectures.

ASICs solve the performance problem

but can take 12 to 18 months to

develop; require scarce, specialized

engineering talent to implement; and

have fixed functionality. Modifying an

ASIC can cost six to nine months in

time-to-market and, even worse, can

force forklift upgrades on customers

who own equipment based on

out-of-date silicon(硅).

RISC处理器由于是可编程的,故提

供了灵活性,以适应快速发展的数据

通信市场。然而,由于它们采用归一

化的体系结构,故缺乏ASIC档次的

性能。ASIC解决了性能问题,但要

花12至18个月时间来开发,并需要

不多见的专门工程人才来具体实现,

同时具备固定不变的功能性。修改

ASIC可能要以推迟6至9个月产品

上市的时间为代价。更有甚者,可能

强迫拥有基于过时硅电设备的客户

升级。

18. Hand-held devices(手持设备)

are more limited than desktop

computers in several important ways.

Their screens are small——perhaps a

few inches square or able to display

only a few lines of text-and they’re

often monochrome instead of color.

Their input capabilities are limited to a

few buttons or numbers, or entering

data takes extra time, as happens with

a personal digital assistant’s (PDA)

handwriting-recognition capabilities.

They have less processing power and

memory to work with, and their

wireless network connections have

less bandwidth and are slower than

those of computers hard-wired to fast

LANs.

手持设备在多个重要的方面比台式

计算机更受限制。它们的屏幕很小—

—也许只有几平方英寸或者只能显

示几行文本信息,它们常常是单色的

而不是彩色的。它们的输入功能局限

于几个按键或数字键,或者像个人数

字助理(PDA)手写体识别功能那样,

输入数据要花很长时间,它们所拥有

的工作处理能力和内存都较小。比起

那些通过计算机硬连线与快速局域

网相连的连接,它们的无线网络连接

带宽较窄,速度也较慢。

19. Digital subscriber line technology

comes in a bewildering variety of

flavors, but they all have one thing in

common——they use various

modulation techniques to turn those

plodding "last mile" loops of copper

between the customer premises and

the telco's(电信公司) central office

into high-speed data and voice carriers.

Most of the focus has been on

ADSL(asymmetric digital subscriber

line),which delivers rates of 32 Kbps

to 8.192 Mbps downstream, and 32

Kbps to 1.088 Mbps upstream to the

network, while providing phone

service at the same time on the same

line.

数字用户环路(DSL)技术有几种令人

疑惑的不同变种,但它们都有一样公

共的东西——它们用不同的调制技

术,把用户房屋和电话公司的中心局

之间低速的"最后一英里"铜线回路

变成高速的数据和话音的载体。(人

们)注意力多数集中在ADSL(不对称

数字用户环路)上,它给出32K至

8.192Mbps的下行速度和32K至

1.088Mbps的上行速度,同时在同一

线路上提供电话服务。

20. But even without a new OS, these

features can be utilized. Leveraging

Windows' driver model, specialty

vendors will offer drivers that can

fully exploit these integrated features.

Thus providing dramatically improved

——or arguably, finally usable-video

and speech capabilities. Of course, this

Pentium-Windows chasm provides an

opportunity for other operating system

vendors such as Red Hat and Be Inc.

That is assuming that they can react

like the Microsoft of old.

但即使没有新的OS,也能利用这些

特性。通过利用Windows的驱动程

序模型,专业公司将提供全面利用这

些内在特性的驱动程序,从而提供戏

剧性改进了的——或者还有争议,但

最终能使用的视频与语音功能。当

然,这场Pentium-Windows的角逐为

其它的操作系统公司,如Red Hat公

司和Be公司提供了机会。这是假设

他们能像过去的微软公司那样工作。

21. Given the relative quickness of

software development, one would

think that software solutions would

lead the computing agenda for many

years. But as software delays have

become more profound and

commonplace, hardware-featured

solutions are beginning to offer better

solutions than their software

counterparts. And given the improving

capabilities of hardware development,

hardware vendors will become the

clear leader in this race.

在假设软件开发较快的情况下,人们

会认为软件方案将在计算领域独领

风骚许多年,但随着软件开发的延迟

变得更严重、更常见,以硬件为特色

的方案开始优于同类软件方案。在硬

件开发能力得到改进的情况下,硬件

厂家将在这场竞赛中明显领先。

22. Linux是不是像Windows那样太

大以及需要系统资源太多,以致于不

能满足嵌入式系统的约束要求呢?

与Windows不同,Linux本来就是模

块化的,并且能够很容易缩减成紧缩

配置,这种配置几乎与DOS差不多

大,甚至能放到一张软盘上。此外,

因为Linux源码是免费可用的,所以

可以按照独特的嵌入式系统要求改

编该操作系统。

这样,并不令人惊奇,开放源代码

Linux已经建立了一个新的操作系统

开发和支持范例,在那里数以千计的

开发人员继续贡献于不断发展的

Linux代码库。此外,几十家面向

Linux的软件公司已经出现----它们

热切支持那些为建立从工厂自动化

到智能设备范围很广的应用系统的

开发人员的需求。

Is Linux , like Windows , too large and

demanding of system resources to fit

the constraints of embedded system?

Unlike Windows , Linux is inherently

modular and can be easily scaled into

compact configurations ,barely larger

than DOS ,that can even fit on a single

floppy. What’s more, since Linux

source code id freely available, it’s

possible to customize the OS

according to unique embedded system

requirements.

It’s not surprising, then, that open

source Linux has created a new OS

development and support paradigm

wherein thousands of developers

continually contribute to a constantly

evolving Linux code base. In addition,

dozens of Linux-oriented software

companies have sprung up eager to

support the needs of developers

building a wide range of applications,

ranging from factory to intelligent

appliances.

23. 对许多嵌入式系统,为了适应诸

如RAM、固态盘、处理机速度,以

及功耗的约束,嵌入的Linux的主要

任务是,使系统所需的资源最小。嵌

入式操作可能需要从一个芯片盘或

紧凑闪存固态盘上自举;或者自举和

运行在没有显示器和键盘的环境,或

经由以太网连接,从远程设备装入应

用程序。

现成的小Linux有许多来源,其中有

日益增多的面向应用的Linux配置

和分发版,这些都被修改成适用于特

定的应用。例如路由器、防火墙、互

联网/网络设备、网络服务器、网关

等。

你也可选择建立你自己喜欢的嵌入

式Linux,从一个标准分发版开始,

略去不要的模块。虽然如此,还应该

考虑从别人的工作配置基础上开始

你的工作,因为他们的版本的源码可

用于那个目的。最好的是,这种在别

人努力的成果上建立系统,在Linux

团体中不仅是完全合法的,也被鼓

励。

For many embedded systems , the

main challenge in embedding Linux is

to minimize system resource

requirements in order to fit within

constraints such as ,RAM solid state

disk(SSD), processor speed, and

power consumption . Embedded

operation may require booting from a

DiskOnChip or CompactFlash SSD ;

or booting and running without a

display and keyboard ; or loading the

application from a remote device via

an Ethernet LAN connection.

There are many resources of

ready-made small foot-print Linux.

Included among these are a growing

number of application-oriented Linux

configurations and distributions that

are tuned to specific applications.

Some examples are routers,

firewalls ,internet/network

appliances ,network

servers ,gateways ,etc.

You may also opt to create your own

flavor of embedded Linux ,starting

from a standard distribution and

leaving out modules you don’t need.

Even so ,you should consider

jump-starting your efforts by

beginning with someone else’s

working configuration ,since the

source code of their version will be

available for that purpose . Best of

all ,this sort of building on the efforts

of others in the Linux community is

not only completely legal but also

encouraged!

24.一个长期目标可以是开发交互式

程序变换系统,它帮助程序员把程序

并行化并提供反馈和指导。这种想法

的问题是半自动化程序变换实现办

法仍然是现行研究的对象,甚至对于

顺序程序也是。在中期内,导出实际

的并行程序的、产品质量变换程序未

必可能出现。传统的方法是讲授一些

算法,然后用具有明显并行性的程序

设计语言明确地表达它们。这很可能

是更成功的,特别是因为已知的一些

并行算法的主要部分很大,并且在迅

速地增长。初步迹象表明,倘若语言

与支持工具充分的话,书写并行软件

不比书写顺序软件显著地更困难。

A long tem goal could be to develop

interactive program transformation

systems that assist programmers in

parallelizing programs and provide

feedback and guidance. The problem

with this idea is that the approach of

semiautomatic program

transformations is still an object of

active research, even for sequential

programs. In the medium terms, a

production-quality transformer for

deriving realistic, parallel programs is

unlikely to appear. The traditional

method of teaching algorithms is

likely to be more successful,

especially since the body of known

parallel algorithms is large and

growing rapidly. Initial indications

seem to be that writing parallel

software is not significantly harder

than writing sequential software,

provided the languages and support

tools are adequate.

第三部分

单选

A computer system has input, output,

(storage) and processing components.

how data are represented inside a

computer system in electronic states

called (bits )

3. Which is magnetic secondary

storage devices?( tape )

4. To facilitate an even faster transfer

of instructions and data to the

processor, most computers are

designed with (Cache memory)

5. A computer having the hardware

and software necessary for it to be

connected to a network. The sentence

describes (Network Computer)

6. With optimal laser disk technology,

the read/write head used in magnetic

storage is replaced by (two) lasers

7. An (SISD) computer carries out one

instruction on one datum at a time

8. He told me all (As a result ), he will

have to be away from school for two

or three months.

9. Would you mind (filling) this form?

10. One of the methods (adopted ) is

to organize visits to other factories.

11. The house (standing ) at the corner

of the street was built in 1984.

12. A multiprocessor system has (more

than one CPU )

13. To prevent user programs from

interfering with the proper operation

of the system, the hardware was

modified to create two models: (User

mode and monitor mode )

14. A collection of interconnected

networks is called an (internet )

15. Which description is false? (The

beauty of an Intranet lies in platform

dependence)

16. In computer networks, the rules

and conventions used in the

conversation are known as (protocol )

17. The data models don’t include

(control unit models )

18. Objected-based logic models are

used for (describing data at the

conceptual and view levels )

19. Polymorphism gives objects the

ability to respond to messages from

routines when the object’s exact type

isn’t known. In C++ this ability is a

result of (late binding )

20. What you said reminds me (of )

something I read a few days ago.

21. The smog is due to invisible gases,

mostly from automobile exhaust.

22. Edison failed (thousands of ) times

before he succeeded in producing the

first electric lamp.

23The ―intelligence‖of a computer

system is (processor )

24. Which is a magnetic secondary

storage device? (disk )

25. All programs and data must be

transferred to (primary storage ) from

an input device or from secondary

storage before programs can be

executed or data can be processed

26. Three main categories of optical

laser disks don’t include (primary

storage )

27 An (MISD ) computer would apply

several instructions to each datum it

fetches form memory

28. Which description is false? (We

can’t view an OS as a resource

allocator )

29. (parallel OS ) is tightly coupled

30. The steps that occur between the

user’s click and the page being

displayed don’t include (the TCP

connection isn’t released )

31. The ISO/OSI mode has (seven )

layers

32. Which description is true? (It’s not

necessary that different views should

contain different data )

33 Physical data models are used for

(describing data at the lowest level )

34. (Multimedia) is encoded at least

through a continuous and a discrete

medium

35. (Expert system) is s set of

programs that manipulate encoded

knowledge to solve problems in a

specialized domain that normally

requires human expertise

36 The waveform repeats the same

shape at regular intervals and this

portion is called a (period)

37. Processor has only two

fundamental sections (the control unit

and the arithmetic and logic unit)

38. The kids are (bound to) be hungry

when they get home—they always are.

39. All the characteristics that

distinguish birds (from) other animals

can be traced to prehistoric times.

40. A computer system has (input ),

output, storage, and processing

components.

41. Processor has only two

fundamental sections (the control unit

and the arithmetic and logic unit )

42. A program instruction or a piece of data is stored in a specific primary storage location called an (address ) 43. A multiprocessor system has (more than one CPU )

44. Input devices don’t include (video displays )

45. (the World Wide Web ) is an architectural framework for accessing linked documents spread out over thousands of machines all over the Internet

46. An (Intranet ) is simply the application of Internet technology within an internal or closed usergroup 47. All Intranet related documents are written in (HTML )

48. A small piece of code that can be transported over the Internet and executed on the recipient’s machine. The sentence describes (applet )

49 He had a large (number) of facts to prove his statements.

50. Scientists will have to come up (with ) new methods of increasing the world’s food supply.

51. It is impossible to solve (so difficult problem ) in such a short time.

52.The decision (having been making ), the next problem was how to make a good plan.

53.( It is not yet known ) whether robots will one day have vision as good as human

54. (database management system ) allows one or many persons to use and/or modify this data

55. A data model is a collection of conceptual tool for describing (data, data relationship, data semantics, data constraints )

56. record-based logic models don’t include (Physical data model )\

57. Which description is false? (delta frames don’t record the interframe changes )

58. How data are represented inside a computer system in electronic states called (.bits )

59. Which is magnetic secondary storage devices?( .tape )

60. How many basic units do today's digital computers consist of? ( 4 ) 61.A bus that provides a path for moving data between system modules is called ( data bus )

62. External devices are linked to a small computer system through (interfaces ).

63.CPU has only two fundamental sections: the arithmetic and logic unit and (the control unit ).

64. A display screen is divided into a grid of (pixels ).

65. arithmetic and logic unit executes instructions

66. The way each object combines its member data and member functions into a single structure is called (Encapsulation )

67.Another name for primary storage is (RAM )

68. The basic output device on a small computer is a (display screen ). 69.The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)reference model is based on a proposal developed by ( ISO )

70. The computer component that actually manipulates the data is (the processor ).

71. The physical components of a computer are collectively called (hardware ).

72.. Each cell of a worksheet can hold (one piece of data ).

73. The part of an instruction that tells the processor what to do is the (operand ).

74. A Web browser is a piece of (software ).

75.The permanently useful data is stored in ( the ROM )

76. A bus that connects major computer components is called (system bus )

77. All functions in spreadsheets start with (an equal sign ).

78. An E-mail server can be considered as a (powerful operating system )

79. Programs are known collectively as (software ).

80. The interference that distorts electronic signals transmitted over a distance is called (noise ). 81. A computer processes information

into ( data ).

82. M emory’s contents are changed

when it is (written ).

83. A location in memory is accessed

by its (address ).

84. A small piece of code that can be

transported over the Internet and

executed on the recipient’s machine.

The sentence describes (applet )

85. To prevent user programs from

interfering with the proper operation

of the system, the hardware was

modified to create two models: (User

mode and monitor mode )

86. A protocol is a set of

(regulations ).

87. HTML stand for(Hypertext

Markup Language )

88. A computer system has input,

output, storage, and (CPU ).

89. All Intranet related documents are

written in ( HTML )

90. The software which acts as an

interface between a user of a computer

and the computer hardware is

(operating system )

91. WWW stand for World Wide Web

92. The processor fetches and executes

(instructions ).

93. Programmers write ( source

code ).

94. Primary storage provides the

CPU with temporary storage for

programs and data

95. hard disk is a magnetic secondary

storage device

96. Data and program instructions are

stored in (memory ).

97. The ―brain‖ of a computer system

is (CPU )

98. A program instruction or a piece of

data is stored in a specific primary

storage location called an (address )

99. The ISO/OSI mode has (seven )

layers

100. A collection of interconnected

networks is called an (Internet )

101. The source of a computer’s logic

is (software ).

102. A computer system has four parts,

they are output, storage, processing

components and (input )

103. The WWW is based on

client-server model standards

104. A multiprocessor system has

(more than one CPU )

105. The Central Processor has only

two fundamental sections (the control

unit and the arithmetic and logic unit )

106. Once a user starts an IRC client,

the server on the IRC service provider

side will provide the user a (channel ).

107. A data model is a collection of

conceptual tool for describing (data,

data relationship, data semantics, data

constraints )

108. External devices are linked to a

small computer system through

(control units ).

109. The waveform repeats the same

shape at regular intervals and this

portion is called a (period )

110. how data are represented inside a

computer system in electronic states

called (bits )

111. How many layers does the

ISO/OSI mode have? (seven )

112. External devices are linked to a

small computer system through

(interfaces ).

113.CPU has only two fundamental

sections: the arithmetic and logic unit

and (the control unit ).

114. Objected-based logic models are

used for ( describing data at the

conceptual and view levels )

115. arithmetic and logic unit executes

instructions

116. Which is an simply the

application of internet technology

within an internal or closed

group?( intranet )

117.CD-ROM belongs to (optical

laser disk )

118. A collection of conceptual tools

for describing data, data relationships,

data semantics and data constraints is

a (data model )

119.The Open Systems

Interconnection (OSI)reference model

is based on a proposal developed by

( ISO )

120. The software that allows one or

many persons to use and/or modify

this data is a (DBMS )

121. The physical components of a

computer are collectively called

(hardware ).

122.. The most popular processor

interconnection topology is the

(hypercube ).

123. The part of an instruction that

tells the processor what to do is the

(operand ).

124. The part of an instruction that

tells the processor what to do is the

(operation code ).

125.The permanently useful data is

stored in ( the ROM )

126. The interference that distorts

electronic signals transmitted over a

distance is called (noise ).

127. All functions in spreadsheets start

with (an equal sign ).

128. An E-mail server can be

considered as a (powerful operating

system )

129. A programming technique that

allows you to view concepts as a

variety of objects is called (object

oriented programming )

130. The interference that distorts

electronic signals transmitted over a

distance is called (noise ).

131. A program instruction or a piece

of data is stored in a specific primary

storage location called an (address )

132. A bus that is used to control the

access to and the use of the data and

address bus is called (control bus)

133. A location in memory is accessed

by its (address ).

134. A small piece of code that can be

transported over the Internet and

executed on the recipient’s machine.

The sentence describes (applet )

135. An E-mail server can be

considered as a (high-configuration

computer ) .

136. A protocol is a set of

(regulations ).

137. Which networks usually span

tens of kilometers?( Metropolitan

area )

138. A computer system has input,

output, storage, and (CPU ).

139. All Intranet related documents are

written in ( HTML )

140. The WWW is based on which of

the following standards? (client-server

model )

141. WWW stand for World Wide

Web

142. All functions in spreadsheets start

with (an equal sign ).

143. Programmers write ( source

code ).

144. Primary storage provides the

CPU with temporary storage for

programs and data

145. When a CPU needs the data to

operate, it goes where first? (the

cache ).

146. When hypertext pages are mixed

with other media, the result is

called(hypermedia )

147. The ―brain‖ of a computer system

is (CPU )

148. A program instruction or a piece

of data is stored in a specific primary

storage location called an (address )

149. The ISO/OSI mode has (seven )

layers

150. What does a worksheet mean? (a

working area framed by letters and

numbers )

151. Before typing in any data, a user

needs to (select the cell).

152. A computer system has four parts,

they are output, storage, processing

components and (input )

153. Another name for primary storage

is (RAM ).

154. The Open Systems

Interconnection (OSI) reference model

is based on a proposal developed by

(ISO ).

155. The basic output device on a

small computer is a (display

screen ).

156. To prevent user programs from

interfering with the proper operation

of the system, the hardware was

modified to create two models: (User

mode and monitor mode )

157. A data model is a collection of

conceptual tool for describing (data,

data relationship, data semantics, data

constraints )

158. What kind of computer would

apply several instructions to each

datum it fetches form memory?

(MISD )

159. What is a computer program? (a

set of instructions )

160.A communication pathway

connecting two or more devices is a

(channel )

161. How many basic units do today's

digital computers consist of? ( 4 )

162. LCD is based on TFT

163. Optical laser disk includes

CD-ROM, magneto-optical disk and

(WORM disk )

164. A special type of primary storage

which cannot be altered by the

programmer is called (ROM )

165. A list of protocols used by a

certain system , one protocol per layer,

is called a (protocol stack )

166. The realization of the mobile

internet relies on a new set of

standards ,known as the (WAP )

167. What does A worksheet mean?

(an EXCEL program )

168. How many different types of

Entity relationships are

there?( 4 )

169. What kind of computer would

apply one instructions to each datum it

fetches form memory? (SISD )

170.Cache memory is employed by

computer designers to increase

computer system (throughput )

171. The Central Processor has only

two fundamental sections (the control

unit and the arithmetic and logic unit)

172. The Open Systems

Interconnection (OSI) reference model

is based on a proposal developed by

(ISO ).

173. The basic output device on a

small computer is a (display

screen ).

174. How many parts are there in URL?

(3 )

175. All Intranet related documents are

written in (HTML )

176. A computer system has five parts,

they are input, output, processing

components , control unit and

(storage ).

177. What does HTTP stand for?

(Hypertext Transfer Protocol )

178.How many record-based logical

models are widely used ?( 3 )

179. A protocol is a set of

(regulations ).

180. What is a set of programs that

manipulate encoded knowledge to

solve problems in a specialized

domain that 81.normally requires

human expertise? (Expert system )

181. LCD is based on which of the

following? (TFT )

182.. How many layers does the

TCP/IP layering model have? (5 )

183.. Another name for primary

storage is (RAM ).

184. How many basic operating

system types are there? (3 ).

185.Which one can be rewritten?

(U-DISK )

186.If an object inherits its attributes

from a single parent, it is called(single

inheritance )

187. The ―brain‖ of a computer system

is (CPU )

188. How many classes are the data

models divided into?( 3 )

189. What does the WWW stand for?

(World Wide Web )

190. A computer system has five parts,

they are input, output, storage, control

unit and (processing components ).

191.The way each object combines its

member data and member functions

into a single structure is called

(Encapsulation )

192. The standard query language of

relational database is (SQL )

193. Creating the database and its

table structure uses ( data

definition )

194. Normally, how long does a user

need to wait until his/her E-mail

account is ready if he/she applies for it

from an ISP ? (no time )

195. A bus that is used to designate the

source or destination of the data on the

data bus is called ( address bus )

196. . Out put devices don’t include

(scanner )

197.What does IC stand for?

(Intelligent Circuit )

198.The software which acts as an

interface between a user of a computer

and the computer hardware is

(operating system )

199.The protocol which downloads

files free of charge from thousands of

computers around the globe is (FTP

protocol )

200. Out put devices don’t include

(mouse )

201. Data and program instructions are

stored in (memory ).

英文拼写的中文意思

标记、标号label

术语,项term

磁盘冗余阵列RAID

以太网 Ethernet

编码encode

音频audio

客户/服务器client/server

指针pointer

高速缓存cache

位(或二进制位)bit

常量constant

可擦写可编程只读存储器

EPROM

带宽bandwidth

控制杆(操纵杆) joystick

广域网 WAN

桌面(台式机)desktop

接口、界面interface

可重用的reusable

文档document

错误、故障bug

光驱CD-ROM

像素pixel

网格、格栅grid

远程的、遥远的remote

定时器 timer

变量variable

菜单、选单menu

电子邮件E-mail

鼠标Mouse

光标cursor

超文本传输协议HTTP

ROM read-only memory

VDT Video Display Terminal

DOS Disk operating system

WAN Wide Area Network

LAN Local Area Network

IP Internet Protocol

ISDN Integrated Services Digital

Network

MMX Multimedia Extensions

DNS Domain Name System

FTP File Transfer Protocol

NC Network Computer

CGA color/graphics adpter

GUIs Graphic User Interfaces

ISP Internet Service Provider

DVD Digital Video Disk

WWW World Wide Web

CPU Central Processing Unit

中文、英文拼写形式

1.class hierarchy类层次

2.XML可扩展标记语言

3.Intranet内部网

4.data bus数据总线

5.Operating system操作系统

6.CAD计算机辅助设计

7.Neural Networks 神经网络

8.ODBC开放数据库连接

9.ISP因特网服务提供商

10.Expert System专家系统

11.Web site网站站点

12.WAN广域网

http://www.doczj.com/doc/bba7f900eff9aef8941e0693.htmlwork communication网络通信

14.FTP文件传输协议

15.system bus系统总线

16.primary memory主存

17.ROM只读存储器

18.object-oriented programming面向

对象编程

19.virtual reality虚拟现实

20.主存(Main memory )

21.调制解调器 (modem )

22.可编程只读存储器(PROM )

23.数据库管理系( DBMS )

24.客户端/服务器

(Client/Server )

25.多媒体(Multimedia )

26.虚函数(virtual function )

27.超文本标记语言( HTML )

28.小型计算机系统接口

(SCSI )

29.计算机辅助软件工程

(CASE )

30.HTML 超文本标记语言

31.Hard disk硬盘

32.database数据库

33.RAM随机存储器

34.工具条( toolbar )

35.统一资源定位符( URL )

36.统一资源标识符( URI )

37.人工智能( Artificial Intelligence )

38.计算机(Computer )

39.面向对象(Object Oriented )

40.图形用户接口(Graphical user interface )

41.中央处理器 ( CPU )

42.计算机网络 ( computer network

43.国际互联网( Internet )

44.计算机辅助制造( CAM )

45.软件工程(software engineering)

46.视频压缩(video compression )

47.算术逻辑部件( ALU )

48.计算机应用 (computer application )

49.电子商务(Electronic Business )

50.虚拟现实(virtual reality )

51.软盘驱动器 ( FDD )

52.图形用户接口(Graphical user interface )

53.应用编程接口(API )

54.视频点播VOD

55.搜索引擎(search engine )

56.传输控制协议/互联网协议

( TCP/IP )

57.万维网( WWW )

58.地理信息系统( GIS )

59.封装( encapsulation )

60.只读存储器 ( ROM )

61.系统软件( system software )

62.磁盘操作系统(DOS )

63.结构化查询语言( SQL )

64.虚拟专用网 ( VPN )

65.开放式系统互联( OSI )

66.个人数字助理(PDA )

67.可移植性(transportability )

68.带宽(bandwidth )

69.集成电路(integrated circuit )

70.结构化编程 (Structured programming )

71.复杂指令集计算机( CISC )

72.短信消息服务( SMS )

73. topology analysis拓扑分析

74.ADO ActiveX数据对象

75. multiprogramming 多道程序设计

76. ODBC 开放数据库互连

77.VR 虚拟现实

78.cache memory 高速缓冲存储器

79.FTP文件传输协议

80.system bus系统总线

81. GUI 图形用户界面

82.ROM只读存储器

83.object-oriented programming面向对象编程

84.virtual reality虚拟现实

85.主存(Main memory )

86.调制解调器 (modem )

87.可编程只读存储器(PROM )

88. off-line operation 脱机操作

89.客户端/服务器

(Client/Server )

90.多媒体(Multimedia )

91.虚函数(virtual function )

92. neural network 神经网络

93..VDT 视频显示终端

94.EDI 电子数据交换

95.CAM 计算机辅助制造

96. RDBMS 关系型数据库管理系统

97.database数据库

98.RAM随机存储器

99.工具条( toolbar )

100.统一资源定位符( URL ) 101.统一资源标识符( URI ) 102.人工智能( Artificial Intelligence )

103. KDD 数据库中的知识发现

104.面向对象(Object Oriented ) 105.图形用户接口(Graphical user interface )

106.中央处理器( CPU ) 107.计算机网络( computer network

108.国际互联网( Internet ) 109.计算机辅助制造( CAM )

110软件工程(software engineering)

111视频压缩(video

compression )

112.算术逻辑部件( ALU )

113.计算机应用(computer

plication )

114.电子商务(Electronic Business )

115虚拟现实(virtual reality )

116. EJB 企业Java

Beans

117.图形用户接口(Graphical user

interface )

118.应用编程接口(API )

119.视频点播VOD

120. memory stick 记忆棒

121.传输控制协议/互联网协议

( TCP/IP )

122.万维网( WWW )

123.地理信息系统( GIS )

124. RAP 快速应用程序原型技术

125.只读存储器( ROM )

126.系统软件( system software )

127.磁盘操作系统(DOS )

128.结构化查询语言( SQL )

129.虚拟专用网( VPN )

130.开放式系统互联( OSI )

131.个人数字助理(PDA )

132. VLSI 超大规模集成电路

133.带宽(bandwidth )

134.集成电路(integratedcircuit )

135.结构化编程(Structured

programming )

136.复杂指令集计算机

( CISC )

137.短信消息服务( SMS )

138.PCI 外围设备互连

139.. real time operating system

实时操作系统

140.OODBMS 面向

对象的数据库管理系统

141.abstract data type 抽象数据类

CPU:中央处理器

modem:调制解调器

SIMD:单指令流多数据流

sort:排序,分类

class:类

desktop:桌面

DVD:数字视盘

font:字体

processor:处理机

bit:位,二进制位

cache:高速缓存

mouse:鼠标

SISD:单指令流单数据流

pixel:像素

bitmap:位图

keyboard:键盘

input:输入

document:文档

E-mail:电子邮件

instruction:指令

output:输出

FTP:文件传输协议

MIMD:多指令流多数据流

capacity:容量

throughput:吞吐量

Ethernet:以太网

disk:硬盘

field:域

item:条目

virtual function:虚拟函数

pointer:指针

cursor:光标

icon:图标

package:包

boot:引导,自举

TCP/IP:传输控制协议/互联网协议

DNS:域名服务

HTTP:超文本传输协议

URL:统一资源定位器

181.键盘:keyboard

182.只读存储器:ROM

183.电子邮件:E-Mail

184.文件:file

185.光驱:CD-ROM

186.互联网:Internet

187.多媒体:multimedia

188.指令:instruction

189.随机存取存储器:RAM

190.芯片:chip

191.人工智能:artificial intelligence

192.下载:download

193.防火墙:firewall

194.机器人robot

195.万维网WWW

196.集线器hub

197.数据data

198.程序program

199.协议protocol

200.操作系统operating system

201.网络计算机network computer

202.专家系统expert system

203.中央处理机CPU

204.调制解调器modem

205.超文本传输协议HTTP

206.(企业)内部网intranet

207.数据库管理系统DBMS

208.主关键字key

209.工作站workstation

判断题

CD-R recorders are used to duplicate

CDs( T )

The system clock is the brain of a

computer. ( F )

Cache memory is much faster than

RAM. ( T )

Internet resources are stored on Web

servers. ( T )

Windows 2000 is the first Windows

operating system in a real

sense.( F )

We can view an operating system as a

resource manager. ( T )

You can connect 255 devices to a

computer by USB. ( F )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. ( F )

Keyboard and mouse are both the

input devices of the computer. ( T )

Cache memory is more expensive than

RAM.( T )

Both the user names and the

passwords must be unique for E-mail

accounts.( F )

ALU is one of the components of

CPU.( T )

JA VA is a Object-Oriented

programming language.( T )

You can connect 120 devices to a

computer by USB. ( T)

PROM is the abbreviation of portable

read –only memory. ( F )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. (T )

Microsoft Windows 2000 is an

operating system of the computer.

( T )

PCI is a popular low-bandwidth bus.

( F )

Printer is the input device of the

computer. ( F )

The system clock sends out pulses

regularly. ( T )

FTP is a protocol of the computer

network. ( T )

HTTP stands for High Transportation

Port. ( F )

A cache runs as fast as a RAM.

( F )

CPU has only one fundamental section:

the control unit. ( F )

Hard disks and floppies operate in

different ways. ( F )

Cache memory is much faster than

RAM. ( T )

VDT stands for video display terminal.

( T )

System bus provides a path for

moving data between system modules.

( F )

CD-ROM stands for compact disk

read-only memory. ( T )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. ( F )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. ( T )

WWW stands for World Wide Web.

( T )

There 3 main categories of optical

laser disks: CD-ROM, DVD and VCD.

( F )

You can connect 255 devices to a

computer by USB. ( F )

JA VA is a Object-Oriented

programming language. ( T )

An OS is the software which acts as an

interface between a user and a

computer. ( T )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. ( T )

Microsoft SQL server 2000 is an

operating system of the computer.

( F )

Microsoft Office 2003 is operating

system software. ( F )

FTP is a protocol of the computer

network. ( T )

The Web browser is used to display

the data stored on the Internet.

( T )

PCI is a popular low-bandwidth bus.

(F )

A buffer's capacity is low and price is

high, and it runs as fast as a RAM.

( F )

Primary storage provides CPU with

temporary storage for programs and

data. (T)

The wide of the bus is also called the

"word length". ( T )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. ( F )

A CPU includes the ALU and the

controller. ( T )

MS-DOS refers to Microsoft Disk

Operating System. ( T )

CD-R recorders are used to duplicate

CDs ( T )

You can connect 255 devices to a

computer by USB. ( F )

Cache memory is much faster than

RAM. ( T )

Printer is the I/O device of the

computer. ( T )

DVD provides CPU with temporary

storage for programs and data.

(F )

JA VA is a structured programming

language. ( F )

C is an Object-Oriented programming

language. ( F )

Internet resources are stored on Web

servers. ( T )

You can connect 127 devices to a

computer by USB. ( T )

MS Office 2000 is the first Windows

operating system in a real sense.

( F )

We can view an operating system as a

output hardware. ( T )

PDA is one of the components of CPU.

( F )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. (F )

Keyboard and mouse are both the

input devices of the computer. ( T )

Cache memory is less expensive than

RAM.( F )

The user name must be unique for

E-mail accounts. ( T )

ALU is one of the components of CPU.

( T )

Keyboard and mouse are both the

input devices of the computer. ( T )

PCI is a popular low-bandwidth bus.

( F )

The single-sided DVD can store

6.5GB of data. ( F )

You can connect 255 devices to a

computer by USB. ( F )

We can view an OS as a resource

manager. ( T )

Windows 95 is the first Windows

operating system in a real sense.

( T )

CD-R recorders can be used to

duplicate CDs( T )

Microsoft Office 2003 is an operating

system software. ( F )

WWW stands for World Wide Web.

( T )

Buffering is an approach to improving

system performance. ( T )

PROM is the abbreviation of portable

read –only memory. ( T )

ROM is the abbreviation of read of

memory. ( F )

Hard disk provides CPU with

temporary storage for programs and

data. (F )

MS-DOS is a Object-Oriented

programming language. ( F )

OS is the software which acts as an

interface between a user and a

computer. ( T )

MS Windows 2000 is a hardware

component of computer. ( F )

FTP is not a protocol of the computer

network. ( F )

C++ language is a structured

programming language. ( F )

Linux is an operating system. ( T )

To format a floppy means that

magnetic areas are created. ( T )

A scanner belongs to the output device.

( F )

URL is used to locate Internet

resources. ( T )

E-mail is a method of sending and

receiving messages on the Internet.

( F )

HTML is used to write Web

pages.( T)

CD-Rrecorders are used to duplicate

CD( T )

XML is used to write Web

pages.( F )

The CPU is the brain of a

computer( T )

Cache memory is as fast as RAM.

( T )

C++ language is a structured

programming language.( F )

Linux is an operating system. ( T )

HTTP is used to locate Internet

resources. ( F )

PCI is abbreviation of peripheral

component interconnect.( T )

A U-disk belongs to the output

device.( T )

E-mail is a method of sending and

receiving messages on the Internet.

( F )

填空

A collection that stores objects of the

same data type is referred to as a

homogeneous collection.

A virus scanner is a

program that is designed to check an

entire computer system for known

viruses or suspicious activity.

A stack is a list of items that are

accessible at only one end of the list.

Electronic Business is

the integration of IT and particularly

the Internet into business processes to

change organizations and create new

ones.

Cache memory is employed by

computer designers to increase the

computer system throughput .

Frequency division multiplexing

(FDM) is the technical term

applied to a network system that uses

multiple carrier frequencies to allow

independent signals to travel through a

medium.

The Unified Modeling

Language(UML) is a

graphical language for visualizing ,

specifying , constructing , and

documenting the artifacts of a

software-intensive system.

Data query uses a set of

commands to explore the database

contents and allows the user to convert

the raw data into useful information.

Another important object-oriented

concept that relates to the class

hierarchy is that common messages

can be sent to the parent class objects

and all derived subclass objects. In

formal terms, this is called

polymorphism .

10.An entity is an object ,

which can be uniquely distinguished

from other objects.

11. In predicate calculus , each

predicate is given a name , which

is followed by the list of arguments.

12. Virtual functions utilize a table for

address information.

13.The MAC sublayer defines the

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with

Collision Detection

protocol , which made Ethernet

famous.

14.Pages are viewed with a

browser .

15. An expert system’s knowledge is

obtained from expert sources and

coded in a form suitable for the system

to use in its inference or reasoning

processes.

16. Windows managers

manage the devices used to exchange

information between applications and

users.

17. Methods are similar to the

functions of procedure-oriented

programming.

The C++ class actually serves as a

template or pattern for creating

objects.

18. The private section of a class

limits the availability of data or

methods to the class itself.

19. Flash memory is

intermediate between EPROM and

EEPROM in bith cost and

functionality.

20. Inheritance in object-oriented

programming allows a class to inherit

properties from a class of objects.

21.The Entity-Relationship

model(E-R model) is based

on a perception of a real world which

consists of objects called entities and

relationships among these objects.

22.Linux is an operating system , which acts as a communication service between the hardware and the software of a computer system.

23. Spooling provides a pool of jobs which have been read and waiting to be run.

24. Data management uses a set of commands to enter , correct , delete , and update data within the database tables.

25. The pattern of the oscillation is called a waveform .

26. Moore observed that the number of transistors that could be put on a single chip was doubling every year and

27. To reduce design complexity , most networks are organized as a series of layer( levels) , each one built upon the one below it.

28.correctly predicted that this pace would continue into the near future. (Window managers ) It manage the devices used to exchange information between applications and users

29.Thread is sometimes called lightweight process.

30.The operating system acts as the manager of system resources and allocates them to specific programs and users as necessary for their tasks.

31. Hubs can be categorized as either CSMA/CD or full-duplex repeaters.

32.Remote teleworkers also have the option to have an ISDN line installed to their home or office , linking them to the corporate Intranet via a local internet service provider(ISP) .

33.( DBMS ) The software that allows one or many persons to use and/or modify this data

34.( insert ) To ass text or data to a file while editing

35.( Network computer ) A computer having the hardware and software necessary for it to be connected to a network

36.( E-Mail ) Let you send messages to Russia, Japan and so on

37. ( Gateway ) A device that connect networks using different communications protocols so that information can be passed from one to the other

38.( multimedia ) Combination of media

39.( hub ) In a network, a device joining communication lines at a central location , providing a common connection to all devices on the network.

In computer networks , pages that point to other pages are said to us ( hypertext )

All Intranet related documents are written in ( HTML )

( Interframe ) compression uses a system of key and delta frames to eliminate redundant information between frames

A computer system has input , output ,( storage ) and processing component

C++’s advantages include strong typing,( Operator overloading ), and less emphasis on the preprocessor When hypertext pages are mixed with other media , the result is called ( hypermedia )

the ( processor ) is ―intelligence‖ of a computer system

( multimedia ) means from the user’s perspective, that computer information can be represented through audio and/or video, in addition to text, image, graphics and animation

When hypertext pages are mixed with other media, the result is called ( hypermedia )

英译汉

1.In each of these statements , there is

a list of individuals , which is given by the argument list , together with phrases that describe certain relations among or properties of the individuals mentioned in the argument list.

在每个陈述中有一个用变元表给出的个体表,以及描述变元表中那些个体间的关系或性质的一些短语。

2.Another reason commonly given that languages like Lisp, TCL, and Smalltalk are good for prototyping is that they don’t require you to pin

down decisions early on------ these

languages are semantically rich.

一般认为像Lisp、TCL和Smalltalk

这样一些语言十分适合于原型法的

另一理由,是因为它们不要求你受早

期决定的约束-----这些语言的语义

是很丰富的。

3.We have systems which can see well

enough to ―recognize‖objects from

photographs , video cameras and other

sensors.

现在有些系统的视觉好得足以“识

别”照片上、摄象机和其他传感器拍

摄得图像上得物体。

4. In the meantime , the lure of a

cheaper and easier-to-maintain intranet

infrastructure brought about by the use

of a relatively standard Web client has

many IS managers enthusiastic about

using Web browsers.

同时,在通过使用比较报纸的Web

客户机而带来的较便宜、较易维护的

内部网基础设施的诱惑下,许多信息

系统的经理对使用Web浏览器很热

情。

5. Work parts are automatically loaded

at central locations on to the handling

system and are routed to the proper

machine tools.

工作部件被自动地装在处理系统的

中心位置,并经由指定路线传送给适

当的机床。

6.In each of these statements , there is

a list of individuals , which is given by

the argument list , together with

phrases that describe certain relations

among or properties of the individuals

mentioned in the argument list.

在每个陈述中有一个用变元表给出

的个体表,以及描述变元表中那些个

体间的关系或性质的一些短语。

7.A handheld’s constraints(局限性)

mean that it’s usually impossible to

directly port a desktop application to a

wireless handheld device. For the

same reasons, it’s difficult to directly

access most Web sites with a handheld

device. Web applications are

traditionally designed based on the

assumption that visitors will have a

desktop computer with a large screen

and a mouse.

手持设备的局限性意味着它通常不

能直接把台式应用程序移植到无线

手持设备上,出于同样的理由,用手

持设备直接访问多数Web站点也很

困难。Web应用程序传统上是基于访

问者拥有带大屏幕和鼠标的台式计

算机这样的假设而设计的。

8.A new concept called the Storage

Area Network(SAN)(存储区域网络)

could offer an answer to the increasing

amount of data that needs to be stored

in an enterprise network environment.

By implementing a SAN, users can

offload storage traffic from daily

network operations while establishing

a direct connection between storage

elements and servers.

对需要在企业网络环境中存储数据

量越来越大的问题,一种称之为存储

区域网络(SAN)的新概念可能提供

了一个答案。通过实现一个SAN,

用户可以在存储设备与服务器之间

建立直接连接的同时,把存储传输负

荷从日常网络操作中分出来。

9. A Storage Area Network(SAN,存

储区域网)does not need to be a

physically separate network, either. It

can be a dedicated sub-network,

carrying only the business-critical I/O

traffic between servers and storage

devices. A SAN, for example, would

not carry general-purpose traffic such

as e-mail or other end-user

applications. This type of net avoids

the unacceptable trade-offs inherent in

a single network for all applications

SAN不需要在物理上是一个单独的

网络。它可以是一个专用的子网,只

在服务器与存储设备之间传输关键

业务I/O信息。例如,SAN不传送通

用意义上的信息,如电子邮件或其它

最终用户应用程序。这类网络避免了

单一网络中固有的不能接受的拆衷

10. Plug and Play(即插即

用)——basically a set of PC

architecture specifications---is an

effort by hardware and software

vendors to design intelligence into

PCs to handle installation and

configuration tasks automatically and

without user intervention.

With a plug-and-play system, users

can install devices into or remove

them from a desktop or mobile PC;

dock and undock desktop PCs from a

network; and optimally configure the

system for different applications

without modifying configuration

parameters or expansion-card jumper

settings.

即插即用——基本上是一组PC机体

系结构的规范,是一种由软硬件厂商

将智能设计进PC机的工作,以便自

动地和无须用户干预地处置安装与

配置任务。

有了即插即用系统,用户就能把设备

装进或移出台式或移动式PC机,使

台式PC机联网或脱网;以及为不同

应用最佳地配置系统而无须修改配

置参数或扩展卡的跳线装置等。

11.IPV6——the next-generation

networking protocol——promises to

change the way corporate networks

and the Internet work.IPv6 (also

referred to as IPng or ,simply,v6)will

eliminate some of IPv4's shortcomings

that have appeared as a result of the

global Internet explosion.IPv6 is a

much-needed improvement, promising

easier-to-obtain IP addresses, cheaper

and faster routing, and such features as

quality of service(QOS, 服务质量)

and encryption(加密).

IPv6——下一代的连网协议,有希望

改变公司网络和因特网的工作方式。

IPv6也叫做IPng,或简称v6,将消

除IPv4因全球因特网爆炸性发展而

带来的某些缺点。IPv6是一项非常

需要的改进,它许诺更容易获得IP

地址,更快更便宜建立路由以及具有

较好的服务质量(QOS)和加密等特

点。

12. RISC processors, because they are

software-programmable, provide the

flexibility to adapt to the rapidly

evolving data communications market.

However, they lack ASIC-level

performance because of their

generalized(归一化的) architectures.

ASICs solve the performance problem

but can take 12 to 18 months to

develop; require scarce, specialized

engineering talent to implement; and

have fixed functionality. Modifying an

ASIC can cost six to nine months in

time-to-market and, even worse, can

force forklift upgrades on customers

who own equipment based on

out-of-date silicon(硅).

RISC处理器由于是可编程的,故提

供了灵活性,以适应快速发展的数据

通信市场。然而,由于它们采用归一

化的体系结构,故缺乏ASIC档次的

性能。ASIC解决了性能问题,但要

花12至18个月时间来开发,并需要

不多见的专门工程人才来具体实现,

同时具备固定不变的功能性。修改

ASIC可能要以推迟6至9个月产品

上市的时间为代价。更有甚者,可能

强迫拥有基于过时硅电设备的客户

升级。

13. Hand-held devices(手持设备)

are more limited than desktop

computers in several important ways.

Their screens are small——perhaps a

few inches square or able to display

only a few lines of text-and they’re

often monochrome instead of color.

Their input capabilities are limited to a

few buttons or numbers, or entering

data takes extra time, as happens with

a personal digital assistant’s (PDA)

handwriting-recognition capabilities.

They have less processing power and

memory to work with, and their

wireless network connections have

less bandwidth and are slower than

those of computers hard-wired to fast

LANs.

手持设备在多个重要的方面比台式

计算机更受限制。它们的屏幕很小

——也许只有几平方英寸或者只能

显示几行文本信息,它们常常是单色

的而不是彩色的。它们的输入功能局

限于几个按键或数字键,或者像个人

数字助理(PDA)手写体识别功能那

样,输入数据要花很长时间,它们所

拥有的工作处理能力和内存都较小。

比起那些通过计算机硬连线与快速

局域网相连的连接,它们的无线网络

连接带宽较窄,速度也较慢。

14. Digital subscriber line technology

comes in a bewildering variety of

flavors, but they all have one thing in

common——they use various

modulation techniques to turn those

plodding "last mile" loops of copper

between the customer premises and

the telco's(电信公司) central office

into high-speed data and voice carriers.

Most of the focus has been on

ADSL(asymmetric digital subscriber

line),which delivers rates of 32 Kbps

to 8.192 Mbps downstream, and 32

Kbps to 1.088 Mbps upstream to the

network, while providing phone

service at the same time on the same

line.

数字用户环路(DSL)技术有几种令人

疑惑的不同变种,但它们都有一样公

共的东西——它们用不同的调制技

术,把用户房屋和电话公司的中心局

之间低速的"最后一英里"铜线回路

变成高速的数据和话音的载体。(人

们)注意力多数集中在ADSL(不对称

数字用户环路)上,它给出32K至

8.192Mbps的下行速度和32K至

1.088Mbps的上行速度,同时在同一

线路上提供电话服务。

15. But even without a new OS, these

features can be utilized. Leveraging

Windows' driver model, specialty

vendors will offer drivers that can

fully exploit these integrated features.

Thus providing dramatically

improved——or arguably, finally

usable-video and speech capabilities.

Of course, this Pentium-Windows

chasm provides an opportunity for

other operating system vendors such

as Red Hat and Be Inc. That is

assuming that they can react like the

Microsoft of old.

但即使没有新的OS,也能利用这些

特性。通过利用Windows的驱动程

序模型,专业公司将提供全面利用这

些内在特性的驱动程序,从而提供戏

剧性改进了的——或者还有争议,但

最终能使用的视频与语音功能。当

然,这场Pentium-Windows的角逐为

其它的操作系统公司,如Red Hat公

司和Be公司提供了机会。这是假设

他们能像过去的微软公司那样工作。

16. Given the relative quickness of

software development, one would

think that software solutions would

lead the computing agenda for many

years. But as software delays have

become more profound and

commonplace, hardware-featured

solutions are beginning to offer better

solutions than their software

counterparts. And given the improving

capabilities of hardware development,

hardware vendors will become the

clear leader in this race.

在假设软件开发较快的情况下,人们

会认为软件方案将在计算领域独领

风骚许多年,但随着软件开发的延迟

变得更严重、更常见,以硬件为特色

的方案开始优于同类软件方案。在硬

件开发能力得到改进的情况下,硬件

厂家将在这场竞赛中明显领先。

17.Video compression is a collection

of techniques used to shrink video

files. Embodied by products called

codecs

(compression/decompression),these

methods fall into two general

categories: interframe and intraframe

compression.

Interframe compression uses a system

of key and delta frames to eliminate

redundant information between frames.

Key frames store an entire frame,

while delta, or ―difference‖, frames

record only the interframe changes.

During decompression, the CPU

builds frames from the key frames and

accumulated deltas.

Intraframe compression is performed

entirely within individual frames.

During intraframe compression, codes

use a variety of techniques to convert

pixels to more compact mathematical

formulas. The simplest technique is

called run length encoding (RLE), in

which rows of adjacent identical

pixels are grouped together.

视频图像压缩是一组用来缩小视频

图像文件大小的技术. 由被称为

Codecs(压缩/解压)产品所体现的这

些方法分为两大类: 帧间压缩和帧

内压缩.

帧间压缩利用关键帧和§帧方法来

消除帧之间的冗余信息. 关键帧存

储一幅完整的帧, 而§帧或‖差异‖

帧, 仅记录帧间变化. 解压时, CPU

从关键帧和累加的§帧来构造各个

帧.

帧内压缩是完全在个别的帧内进行

的. 在帧内压缩时, Codecs使用各种

技术把像素转换成更紧凑的数学公

式. 最简单的技术称作行程长度编

码(RLE). 按这种编码法, 各行中相

邻的相同像素串归在一起.

18. Block: A sequence of executable

statements which is a part of an

executable constructor.

Data object: A variable or a constant.

Data entity: A data object, the result of

the evaluation of an expression, or the

result of a function reference.

Definition: A derived type definition

defines a derived data type. A

subprogram definition defines a

user-defined subroutine or function. A

variable or a record of an internal file

is defined if they have a valid value.

Double precision real: The double

precision real type is a special case of

the real type.

FORTRAN processor: The computing

system consisting of hardware and

software by which programs are

transformed for use on that system.

Parent object: A subobject is a part of

a parent object.

Presence: An optional dummy

argument is present if an actual

argument is associated with it which

either a present dummy argument of

the caller is or which is not a dummy

argument of the caller.

Reference: A ―data object reference‖ is

the appearance of the data object name

or data object designator where its

value is required during program

execution.

Variable: A named variable is a scalar

or an array object that has an own

name. An unmanned variable is an

array element, an array section, a

structure component, or a character

string.

块(程序块): 可执行语句序列, 它是

可执行结构的一部分

数据对象: 变量或常量

数据实体: 数据对象、表达式球值的

结果或函数引用的结果

定义:导出类型定义定义导出的数据

类型.子程序定义定义用户定义的例

行子程序或函数.变量或内部文件的

记录被定义,如果它们有有效值的话.

双精度实型:双精度实型是实型的一

种特殊情形.

FORTRAN处理器: 由硬件和软件组

成的计算系统,程序由此软件变换以

供在此系统上使用.

父对象:子对象是父对象的一部分

存在: 一个可任选的哑变元是存在

的,如果与他相关联的实在变元或者

是调用程序之存在的哑变元,或者根

本不是调用程序的哑变元

引用: ‖数据对象引用‖是程序执行期

间需要其值的数据对象名或数据对

象命名符的出现.

变量: 有名变量是标量或有自己名

的数组对象.无名变量是数组元素,

数组段, 结构成分或字符串

19. Objected-based logical models are

used for describing data at the

conceptual and view levels. They are

very close to human logic. Many

different models are available to

describe object-based logic models.

The most important among them are

semantic data model and

entity-relationship model. Semantic

data model provides a facility for

expressing meaning about the data in

the database. The Entity-Relationship

model (E-R model) is based on a

perception of a real world which

consists of a collection of objects

called entities and relationships among

these objects. An entity is an object,

which can be uniquely distinguished

from other objects.

Record-based logical models define

the overall logical structure of the database as well as higher level description of its implementation. Physical data models are used to describe data at the lowest level.

基于对象的逻辑模型用于描述概念层与视图层的数据. 它们非常接近于人的逻辑. 很多不同的模型可用来描述基于对象的逻辑模型, 其中最重要的是语义数据模型和实体关系模型. 语义数据模型提供了表达数据库中数据之意义的设施. 实体关系模型(E-R模型)是基于这样的认识: 现实世界是由一组称为实体的对象和这些对象之间的关系组成的. 实体是对象, 它能与其他对象唯一地区别开.

基于记录的逻辑模型定义数据库的整个逻辑结构以及其实现的更高级描述.

物理数据模型用于描述最低层的数据.

20. An operating system is the software which acts as an interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which a user may execute program.

We can view an operating system as a resource allocator. A computer system has many resources. The operating system acts as the manager of these resources.

操作系统是一种软件,它是作为在计算机用户和计算机硬件之间的一个接口.

操作系统的目的是给要执行程序的用户提供一个环境.

可以把操作系统看作是一个资源分配程序

一个计算机系统有许多资源

操作系统是这些资源的管理者.

21.A computer system has input, output, storage, and processing components.

The processor is the ―intelligence‖ of a computer system. A single computer system may have several processors.

Each processor, sometimes called the central processing unit or CPU, has only two sections.

All programs and data must be transferred to primary storage form an input device before programs can be executed or data can be processed.

一个计算机系统的组成部件有: 输入,输出,存储和处理

处理器是计算机系统的核心部件

一个计算机也行有多个处理器

有时候,处理器被称作中央处理机,它只有两个部件

程序执行之前或数据被访问之前,所有的程序和数据都必须经过输入设备传到主存储器

22. Many networks exist in the world, often with different hardware and software. People connected to one network often want to communicate with people attached to a different one. Form the user’s point of view, the Web consists of a vast, worldwide collection of documents.

Every Web site has a server process listening to TCP port 80 for incoming connections from clients. After a connection has been established, the client sends one request and the server sends one reply.

世界上有许多网络,它们具有不同的软件和硬件

连在某一网络上的人们经常同连在不同网络上的人们交流

从用户的观点来看,Web拥有巨大的,广泛的文档

每个Web站点有一个服务器,它通过监听TCP的80端口来查看来自用户的连接请求

一个连接建立之后,用户发送一个请求,然后服务器发送回答

汉译英

1. Linux是不是像Windows那样太大以及需要系统资源太多,以致于不能满足嵌入式系统的约束要求呢?与Windows不同,Linux本来就是模块化的,并且能够很容易缩减成紧缩配置,这种配置几乎与DOS差不多大,甚至能放到一张软盘上。此外,因为Linux源码是免费可用的,所以可以按照独特的嵌入式系统要求改编该

操作系统。

这样,并不令人惊奇,开放源代码

Linux已经建立了一个新的操作系统

开发和支持范例,在那里数以千计的

开发人员继续贡献于不断发展的

Linux代码库。此外,几十家面向

Linux的软件公司已经出现----它们

热切支持那些为建立从工厂自动化

到智能设备范围很广的应用系统的

开发人员的需求。

Is Linux , like Windows , too large and

demanding of system resources to fit

the constraints of embedded system?

Unlike Windows , Linux is inherently

modular and can be easily scaled into

compact configurations ,barely larger

than DOS ,that can even fit on a single

floppy. What’s more, since Linux

source code id freely available, it’s

possible to customize the OS

according to unique embedded system

requirements.

It’s not surprising, then, that open

source Linux has created a new OS

development and support paradigm

wherein thousands of developers

continually contribute to a constantly

evolving Linux code base. In addition,

dozens of Linux-oriented software

companies have sprung up eager to

support the needs of developers

building a wide range of applications,

ranging from factory to intelligent

appliances.

2. 对许多嵌入式系统,为了适应诸

如RAM、固态盘、处理机速度,以

及功耗的约束,嵌入的Linux的主要

任务是,使系统所需的资源最小。嵌

入式操作可能需要从一个芯片盘或

紧凑闪存固态盘上自举;或者自举和

运行在没有显示器和键盘的环境,或

经由以太网连接,从远程设备装入应

用程序。

现成的小Linux有许多来源,其中有

日益增多的面向应用的Linux配置

和分发版,这些都被修改成适用于特

定的应用。例如路由器、防火墙、互

联网/网络设备、网络服务器、网关

等。

你也可选择建立你自己喜欢的嵌入

式Linux,从一个标准分发版开始,

略去不要的模块。虽然如此,还应该

考虑从别人的工作配置基础上开始

你的工作,因为他们的版本的源码可

用于那个目的。最好的是,这种在别

人努力的成果上建立系统,在Linux

团体中不仅是完全合法的,也被鼓

励。

For many embedded systems , the

main challenge in embedding Linux is

to minimize system resource

requirements in order to fit within

constraints such as ,RAM solid state

disk(SSD), processor speed, and

power consumption . Embedded

operation may require booting from a

DiskOnChip or CompactFlash SSD ;

or booting and running without a

display and keyboard ; or loading the

application from a remote device via

an Ethernet LAN connection.

There are many resources of

ready-made small foot-print Linux.

Included among these are a growing

number of application-oriented Linux

configurations and distributions that

are tuned to specific applications.

Some examples are routers,

firewalls ,internet/network

appliances ,network

servers ,gateways ,etc.

You may also opt to create your own

flavor of embedded Linux ,starting

from a standard distribution and

leaving out modules you don’t need.

Even so ,you should consider

jump-starting your efforts by

beginning with someone else’s

working configuration ,since the

source code of their version will be

available for that purpose . Best of

all ,this sort of building on the efforts

of others in the Linux community is

not only completely legal but also

encouraged!

3.一个长期目标可以是开发交互式

程序变换系统,它帮助程序员把程序

并行化并提供反馈和指导。这种想法

的问题是半自动化程序变换实现办

法仍然是现行研究的对象,甚至对于

顺序程序也是。在中期内,导出实际

的并行程序的、产品质量变换程序未

必可能出现。传统的方法是讲授一些

算法,然后用具有明显并行性的程序

设计语言明确地表达它们。这很可能

是更成功的,特别是因为已知的一些

并行算法的主要部分很大,并且在迅

速地增长。初步迹象表明,倘若语言

与支持工具充分的话,书写并行软件

不比书写顺序软件显著地更困难。

A long tem goal could be to develop

interactive program transformation

systems that assist programmers in

parallelizing programs and provide

feedback and guidance. The problem

with this idea is that the approach of

semiautomatic program

transformations is still an object of

active research, even for sequential

programs. In the medium terms, a

production-quality transformer for

deriving realistic, parallel programs is

unlikely to appear. The traditional

method of teaching algorithms is

likely to be more successful,

especially since the body of known

parallel algorithms is large and

growing rapidly. Initial indications

seem to be that writing parallel

software is not significantly harder

than writing sequential software,

provided the languages and support

tools are adequate.

从供选择的答案中,选出应填入下面

叙述中{ }内的最确切的解答,把相

应编号写在答卷的对应栏内。

(1) Network managers have long

{awaited} practical

voice-over-IP(VOIP) solutions. VOIP

{promises} ease network management

and decreases costs by converging at a

company's telephony and data

infrastructures into one network. And

a VOIP solution implemented at a

company's headquarters with

far-reaching branch offices can

{ save }tremendous amounts of

{money} in long distance phone bill,

provided that solution delivers

POTS-like voice { quality } over the

Internet.

(2) Basically, a firewall is a

{ standalone} process or a set of

integrated processes that runs on a

router or { server } to control the flow

of networked application traffic

{ passing } through it. Typically,

firewalls are placed on the entry point

to a {public} network such as the

Internet. They could be considered

traffic cops. The firewall's {role}is to

ensure to ensure that all

communication between an

organization's network and the Internet

conform to the organization's security

policies.

(3) All of these applications will

enhance the { quality} of life and spur

economic growth. Over half of the U.S.

work force is now in jobs that are

information {based}. The

telecommunication and information

sector of the U.S. economy now

{account} for 12 percent of the Gross

Domestic Product, groing much faster

than any other sector of the economy.

Last year the { revenues}in this sector

exceeded 700 billion dollars. The U.S.

exported over 48 billion doooars of

telecommunication equipment

{alone}.

(4) The growth of switching has

{ created } a new generation of

network management tools that help

{ technicians}cope with the challenges,

{ enabling }them to correlate device

alarm in order to {better}pinpoint root

causes, or to monitor service levels

without depending on IP subnetting

schemes. These new tools have

become essential to coping with the

primary {side} effect of any treatment

that significantly increases network

flexibility: added complexity.

(5) Many word processing programs

include spell checker. It checks the

spelling of every word in a {document

by looking up each word in its

dictionary. If the word does not appear

in the dictionary, the user is

{alerted}to a possible misspelling and

possible corrections are often

{ suggested }. Spell checker does not

recognize unusual people names or

specialized terms, but it will often

allow you to to create your own

personal dictionary of specialized

words you often use. Spell checker is a

valuable aids to proofreading, but it

can not catch the {substitution }of one

correctly spelled word for another

(such as form for from). Thus it does

not {grarantee }a document is free of

spelling errors.

(6) A local-area network (LAN) is a

communications network that

{interconnects} a variety of devices

and provides a {means} for

information exchange among those

devices. The scope of the LAN is

small typically a single building or a

cluster of buildings. The LAN is

usually owned by the same

organization that owns the {attached}

devices. The internal data rate of LAN

is at least several Mbit/s. The basic of

LAN communication is broadcasting.

At each station, there is a

transmitter/receiver that communicates

over a {medium} shared by other

stations. A transmission from any one

station is {broadcast} to a received by

all other stations.

预祝大家考试顺利!

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