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如何在90天内学会一门语言

How to Learn A Language in 90 Days

如何在90天内学会一门语言

‘If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his own language, that goes to his heart.’ ~Nelson Mandela

“用他人懂的语言与之谈话,只能交流;用他人的母语与之谈话,便可交心。”——纳尔逊·曼德拉

I still remember the happiest moment of my life. I had decided to throw a party for my Italian friends while living in Florence, Italy. My friends didn’t speak any English, and I vividly remember throwing the party and trying to only speak in Italian. And then, someone asked me to tell a joke.

还记得我生命中最开心的时刻,那时我住在意大利的佛罗伦萨,决定为我的意大利朋友举办一个派对。我清楚地记得要办派对,朋友并不懂英语,我打算只说意大利语。然后,有人叫我讲个笑话。我不知道你晓不晓得,用其他语言讲笑话,可以想象是一件很折磨人的事。

I began the joke. C’era una volta (Once upon a time) …

我开始讲我的笑话,C’era una volta(意大利语:很久以前)……

Halfway through the joke, I began to get flustered. I couldn’t remember the Italian word in the punchline. And 30 Italians were staring at me, waiting for the joke to end.

讲到一半时,我开始惊慌失措了,到笑点时,我不知道如何用意大利语表达了,30位意大利人都紧紧地瞪着我,等我把笑话讲完。

At the last minute, I remembered and completed the joke. I waited for the sound of crickets …but instead experienced a thunderous laugh and a round of applause. I had made dozens of Italians laugh, in their country, in their language.

最后,我想起来了,接着讲完了那个笑话。我等着他们倒喝彩,然而他们却给了我雷鸣般的掌声和笑声。

我曾经在这个国家,用他们的语言讲了几十个意大利文笑话

Until today, that memory continues to be one of the happiest moments I’ve ever experienced. And it’s the reason that, over the last four years, I’ve studied languages and now speak five: English, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and German.

直到现在,我仍就觉得这是我经历过的最开心的事。原因是,在最后的四年里,我学习了很多种语言,现在我可以讲五种语言:英语,意大利语,西班牙语,葡萄牙语,德语。

The Benefits of Bilingualism

双语能力的益处多多

Becoming bilingual opens up a whole new world—a world of different people, of different cultures, of different emotions.

双语能力为你敞开了一个全新世界,不同人的世界,不同文化的世界,不同情感的世界。

Learning a second language has many cognitive benefits. For example, learning a new language has been shown to delay Alzheimer’s, boost brainpower, reduce cognitive biases, and even increase concentration and the ability to tune out distractions. Your ability to build better habits will improve by learning a new language.

第二语言的习得能提高认知能力。比如说,研究表明,学习一门新语言可延缓老年痴呆症,提高智力,降低认知偏差,甚至改善你的注意力,降低分散注意力。通过学习一门新语言,你可以养成更好的习惯

But, more so than cognitive effects, the ability to speak a second language has a ton of social benefits. There’s bliss in having the ability to order food in the waiter’s native language, to eavesdrop on people in an elevator, to impress natives by speaking with and understanding them.

而且,不仅是认知方面的益处多多,能讲第二种语言也有很多社会好处。你能用本土语言跟服务员点餐,在电梯里偷听别人讲话,通过和母语者交流并理解他们,能给他们留下印象,这些简直就是天赐洪福。The coolest thing about learning your second language is that it makes learning a third, fourth, or fifth language much easier. The challenge isn’t in learning a new language, but rather learning how to learn a language. Once you know the techniques, you’ll be able to apply the same grammatical patterns and language techniques in every new language you learn. It’s for this reason that, while

Italian took me 3 or so months to master, Spanish took only 2 months and Portuguese took just a few weeks.

学习第二语言最棒的是让你觉得学习第三,第四,第五种语言变得更容易。你面临的挑战不是学习一种新的语言,而是学会如何去学好它。只要你懂得其中的技巧,你就能在每次学习一门新语言时运用这些相同的语法规律和语言技巧。正因为这样,我只花了三个月左右的时间掌握了意大利语,而只花了两个月学会西班牙语,只用了几周的时间就学会了葡萄牙语。

Why most people are wrong about language learning

为什么大部分人的语言学习方法都不正确。

I studied spanish for several years in high school, and even got good grades on national exams. But one day, when I actually tried to speak the language, I suddenly realized.

我在中学时学了几年的西班牙语,甚至在国考时获得了好成绩,但直到有一天,我尝试开口讲西班牙语时,突然意识到了什么。

Four years of studying Spanish in school, and I couldn’t even order a burrito.

在学校学了四年的西班牙语,我竟然不懂订一份玉米煎饼如何表达。

So what went wrong? According to official standardized tests, I was an expert in Spanish. But I couldn’t even do the most basic of tasks!

到底哪错了呢?经过官方标准化测试得知,我是精通西班牙语的,但是,我竟连最基本的表达都不会。The fact is that we not taught languages in the ideal way. Students study languages in huge groups and think that a few worksheets and grammar exercises will be enough to learn a language.

事实是,我们没用理想的教学方法教语言。学生在庞大的集体里学习语言,认为做几次作业和语法练习就够了。

Yet almost no one actually learns to speak.

所以几乎没有一个人能真正懂讲。

In actuality, by doing worksheets, we are practicing for just that—for worksheets. But if you want to learn to speak, well, you actually have to practice by speaking.

事实上,做作业,只是为了作业而做作业。如果你想学会讲,那好,你真的要练习口语。

So when people try to learn to speak a language out of a book, or with Rosetta Stone, I try to show them that they won’t achieve their goals that way. If you want to speak, you have to practice speaking. And if you want to speak a language rapidly, well, you have to start speaking. A lot.

所以当人们看着书或面对着罗赛达石来练口语,我想告诉他们,他们是不会成功的。你若想讲出来,必须得练口语,而若你想快速地讲,那好,你要开始大量练习口语。

The Basic Strategy Of Rapid Language Learning

快速学语言的基本策略

Learning a language can seem daunting, so I’m going to provide an overview of the general strategy, before we get into the specifics.

学习语言令人生畏,我打算大概地总结一些基本地策略,然后再做具体分析。

Here is the breakdown. We’ll go more in depth into each of these later on.

以下分几类,稍后我们会进一步深入理解每个环节的内容。

1. Get the right resources for learning: A grammar book, memorization software, and films/books.

1、获取正确的学习资源:语法书,记忆软件,电影/书

2. Get a private tutor. You want one for at least a month. I recommend four hours/day.

2、聘请私人家教。至少教你一个月,我建议一天四小时

3. Attempt to speak and think only in the new language. Every time you can’t remember a word, put that word into your memorization software. Practice your vocabulary daily.

3、尝试着用新语言去表达和思考。每次你不记得单词时,把它输入你的记忆软件中,每天练习词汇记忆

4. Find friends, language partners, and other speakers of the language. Once you can have basic conversations with your private tutor, you need to find other partners. If you haven’t already, think about moving to the country where the language is spoken. Consider a group class. Practice continuously. Stop speaking English.

4、找些朋友,语言学习伙伴,和其他说这门语言的人。只要你能和你的私人家教进行基本的对话,你就需要找一位伙伴。若你还没有,思考一下能否搬去讲这种语言的国家。考虑一下班级也可以。不断练习,不要讲母语。

That’s the basic strategy. Again, this strategy is intensive, because learning a language in three months is a difficult task. If you’d prefer to learn the language more slowly or you don’t have the ability to move to a new country and practice 4-8 hours a day, then you can modify the plan. It is extremely important that you practice every day, however—20 minutes a day is much better than once or twice a week.

这是基本的学习策略。然而这条策略要求很高,因为在三个月内学会一门语言是一项很艰巨的任务。如果你喜欢慢慢地来,或者你无法搬去一个新的国家,那就每天训练4-8个小时,然后再根据情况修改计划。每天坚持练习极其重要,然而------每天练习20分钟比每周只练习两次好得多。

Some of these concepts are hard to understand through the written word, so I created a video series, just for Zen Habits readers, that teaches the steps to learn a language. Get the Hack The System Language Learning Videos here.

书面上很难使你明白这些观点,所以我制作了一系列的视频,专门针对不好动的读者,教你如何学习一门语言。点击这里进入黑客系统语言学习视频

The Resources You Need To Learn A Language

语言学习资料

In order to learn a language, you’ll need some items that you can practice with. Here are the resources I always use.

你需要些项目来练习,这是我经常使用的资源。

The Necessary Resources

必要的资源

A good grammar book. This is essential if you want to learn a language. I recommend Dover’s Essential Grammar series: the books are very cheap, concise, and thorough. When I lived in Italy, the Dover Essential Italian Grammar book became my bible. I read it everywhere, slept with it, and even memorized it.

一本语法书。这对学习语言必不可少。我推荐Dover基本语法系列:这些书很便宜,简明扼要,要点齐全。我住在意大利的时候,Dover版意大利语基本语法书是我的指导用书,我去到哪都读它,与它同榻,甚至把背了出来。

A phrase book. This is similar to a dictionary, but for phrases. You can start memorizing full sentences and phrases, and you’ll naturally learn the individual words. I’ll talk more about memorization tactics shortly.

一本短语书:这就像一本字典,但是,是一本短语字典。你可以开始记些完整的句型和短语,自然就学会了个别的单词。我会马上讲到更多关于记忆技巧方面的内容。

An online dictionaryA memorization app. You have to memorize vocabulary. I always put new words in my app, and practice them every night.

一款记忆应用程序。记忆单词是必须的,我总是把单词放在我的应用软件里。每晚我都练习背单词。

If you’re on a Mac, check out the app Genius. This genius app (pun intended) uses time-spacing techniques to test our knowledge. You’ll randomly be quizzed on words or phrases you are trying to learn, and the more often you make a mistake, the more often you’ll be tested. I recommend you put English on the left column and your desired language on the right, so that you’ll learn to speak in a new language, not translate from it. If you’re on a PC, I’ve heard good things about Anki.

如果你在Mac上,登录你的应用程序Genius。这个天才应用程序(双关意义的)应用时间间隔技术测试知识。它会对你想学的单词或短语进行随机测试,对你经常犯的错误进行测试。我建议你把英语放在左

栏,你想学的语言放在右栏,这样就可以学会用新语言口头表达,而不是单纯地翻译意思。若你登录了个人计算机,你就听说过记忆软件Anki的好处。

Resources to learn from

学习资源

A Private Tutor. I highly recommend getting an in-person private tutor through Craigslist or a nearby language school. However, if you can’t find anyone in your area or they are too expensive, check out http://www.doczj.com/doc/dcbf009e49649b6648d7478d.html. Edufire is a website that allows you to take private and group classes online over the Internet. Again, remember, private lessons are essential, so skip the group classes.

一名私人家教。我强烈建议你从克雷格列表网站或附近的语言学校聘请一位亲自教你的私人家教。然而,如果你在你那地方找不到人或是聘请费用太昂贵,可以登录http://www.doczj.com/doc/dcbf009e49649b6648d7478d.html。Edufire是一个你能找到网上家教或在网上集体上课的网站。而且,记住哦,私人授课尤为重要,所以你可以放弃集体上课的形式。

Free language partners and tutors. The Mixxer is an incredible resource. It’s a site that allows you to connect, via Skype, with language partners all over the world. Just choose your native language, and what you are trying to learn, and The Mixxer will find partners with opposite needs (who speak your target language and want to learn your native language).

免费的语言学习伙伴和家教。Mixxer给你提供极好的资源。这是一个你可以通过Skype网络电话连通全球的语言学习伙伴的站点,只需选择你的母语和你想学的语言就行,而Mixxer会帮你找到对应的搭档(这个搭档会讲你的目的语,而且想学你的母语)。

At the beginning, online partners are a big help. Why? First, because chatting is much easier than speaking, so you get a chance to practice your language. Second, chat gives you a log of what you’ve been saying—and it makes it easier for your partner to correct you.

刚开始,网上对话搭档会帮助你很多,为什么呢?首先,因为聊天比口头表达容易得多,所以你有机会练习语言表达。第二,有聊天记录,可以让你的搭档容易帮你纠正错误。

I use http://www.doczj.com/doc/dcbf009e49649b6648d7478d.html and http://www.doczj.com/doc/dcbf009e49649b6648d7478d.html to find language partners and language meetups, no matter where I live. Check out Benny’s article to learn about finding language partners through Couchsurfing.

我用http://www.doczj.com/doc/dcbf009e49649b6648d7478d.html 和http://www.doczj.com/doc/dcbf009e49649b6648d7478d.html这两个网站找到了语言学习的搭档和学习小组,不管我住在哪,只要登录Benny’s article,就能通过Couchsurfing找到我的搭档

I don’t recommend Rosetta Stone. Rosetta Stone is incredibly slow. In Level 1, which takes 1-2 months to complete, you’ll only be familiar with the present tense. This is not a good use of your time. 我记不得罗塞塔石碑,记得超慢,记一级水平的单词花了我1-2个月,而只能熟悉现在时态,不能好好充分利用时间。

Pimsleur tapes, on the other hand, can be beneficial because they help you practice pronunciation in the context of conversations. However, they are still quite slow. To test this, I started training with the German Pimsleur tapes two weeks before beginning my German classes. I felt like I was making huge progress by finishing 1/2 of the German 1 tapes—until I had surpassed that knowledge in fewer than two days with an actual teacher.

另外,罗皮姆斯罗磁带,也有很大帮助,能帮助你在情景对话下练习发音。然而,学习速度还是很慢。为了测试这种情况,我开始用德国罗皮姆斯罗磁带训练两周时间,才上德语课。我练了一半的磁带后,感觉进步了好多,直到我在一个真人老师的帮助下,在不到两天的时间里,就掌握了知识。

The 90 Day Plan to Learning a Language

学习一门语言的90天计划

It’s possible to achieve fluency, or at least a high speaking level, in just 90 days, but it requires intense focus. The biggest shift was in mindset: I had to change my self conception from ‘Maneesh: a blogger who wants to learn Italian’ to ‘Maneesh: Italian learner (who blogs in his extra time).

只用九十天就达到流利的水平是可以的,或者至少能处于一种很好的口语表达水平,但是需要高度的集中注意力。思想上发生的巨大转变是,必须改变自己的观点,摒弃‘Maneesh博客想学习意大利语’到‘成为意大利语学习者’的思想(Maneesh在他的博客里发表)。

If you don’t have the freedom to focus fulltime on learning a language, that’s okay, but the process will take longer than 90 days. Just make sure that you continue to practice every day, or else you’ll lose your knowledge rapidly.

若你没有自由的时间集中全部精力学习一门语言,那好,这个过程会比90天还要长,但要确保你每天都保持练习,否则你会很快忘记你的知识。

Days 1-30

30天内的学习计划

The first thirty days are critical to learning a new language. You need to immerse yourself as fully as possible.

最开始的30天是学好一门新语言的关键。你必须尽可能投入全部的精力。

I highly recommend moving to a country where the language is spoken if you want to learn a language in 90 days. This will help you get into the language learning mindset, and will allow you to surround yourself with the new language. If you are able to move to a new country, try to live with a host family. You’ll learn a lot by eating meals with a family that hosts you.

若你想在90天内学好一门语言,我强烈地建议搬到你所学语言的国家去。这能帮助你全身心感受语言学习的心态,让你置身于新语言的学习环境中。若你能搬到一个新国家去,尝试着跟一个热情好客的家庭住在一起。与款待自己的人家同台吃饭可以学到很多东西。

In any case, during the first month, work one on one with a private tutor—not group classes. Group classes allow you to sit back and be lazy, while a private tutor forces you to learn.

无论如何,第一个月内,要一对一的家教学习,而不是集体学习。集体上课会让你怠惰,而家教老师却只关注你一个人的学习。

This is important: you must be an active learner. Most people allow themselves to be taught to, but you have to take an active role in asking questions. The best way to understand this process is via video—part of the video series I made to supplement this post includes a sample of a class I took while studying Swedish, with explanations of the questions I ask during private training. Check out the language learning videos I’ve made for this post here.

重要的是,你必须积极主动地去学。大部分人只想被别人灌输知识,但是你必须积极主动地向老师提问题。最好就是通过看视频理解学习的过程,我制作的部分视频补充了这篇文章的内容,其中包括我在学习瑞典

语时上的一堂示范课,以及在接受私人培训期间我所提问题的解释

You’re going to start encountering a lot of words and phrases that you don’t know, both with your private tutor, and when you practice languages on your own. Enter these words in your memorization software.

你会遇到很多新单词和短语,这些在家教的帮助下,进行自我练习,并把它们输入你的记忆软件。

You want to start memorizing 30 words and phrases per day. Why 30? Because in 90 days, you’ll have learned 80% of the language.

开始时,你想每天记30个单词和短语,为什么是30个呢?因为90天内,你要学会这门语言的80%。This great article talks about the number of words in the Russian language.

这篇长文章讨论的是学习俄语时要求记忆的单词数

the 75 most common words make up 40% of occurrences

75个最常见词占现有单词的40%

the 200 most common words make up 50% of occurrences

200个最常见词占现有单词的50%

the 524 most common words make up 60% of occurrences

524个最常见词占现有单词的60%

the 1257 most common words make up 70% of occurrences

1257个最常见词占现有单词的%70

the 2925 most common words make up 80% of occurrences

2925个最常见词占现有单词的80%

the 7444 most common words make up 90% of occurrences

7444个最常见词占现有单词的99%

the 13374 most common words make up 95% of occurrences

13374个最常见词占现有单词的95%

the 25508 most common words make up 99% of occurrences

25508个最常见词占现有单词的99%

As you can see, you need to learn around 3000 to hit 80% of the words … probably enough before you can start learning words easily by context. At 30 words/day, you’ll have learned almost 3000 in 90 days.

这3000个单词大概已足够,你就可以开始通过语境更容易学习单词。每天30个单词,90天内你会学到近3000个单词。

Use mnemonics to help memorize words.

用记忆法来帮助记单词

Days 31-60

31-60天内的学习计划

After your first month, it’s time to focus on exposing yourself to the language as much as possible. After a month of private tutoring, you’ll have the ability to have basic conversations.

一个月后,你尽可能集中接触所学的语言。经过一个月的家教培训后,你会进行基本的对话了。

If your private tutor is getting expensive, you might consider doing advanced group classes at this point—it’ll save you money and give you access to other friends who are learning the language. Just be careful of speaking only in English. Try to make it a rule to speak in the new language as much as possible. Continue with your private tutor, if possible.

若你的家教收费昂贵,你可以考虑参加高级班,在这点上可以节省你的钱,让你有机会接触其他学习这门

语言的朋友。不过要小心谨慎,不要只用英语表达。尝试着尽可能习惯地用新语言表达。若可以的话,继续聘用你的家教。

If at all possible, find a boyfriend or girlfriend who is a native speaker. Learning a language is much easier when you’re dating someone who speaks that language. I once met a man who spoke fluent Russian, and when I asked him how long it took to learn, he answered, ‘two wives.’ The best advice I can give you for finding a significant other is something my Italian friend once told me: “Couchsurfing isn’t a dating site … but it helps.”

若可能的话,找一个男朋友或女朋友是讲母语的本地人。当你通过和讲母语的人约会学习一门语言时,学习会变得更容易。曾经我碰到一个俄语讲得很流利的人,当我问他花了多长时间学习俄语时,他回答,“向我的两个妻子学的。”我给你最好的建议是找到关键的人,这是我的意大利朋友告诉我的:‘Couchsurfing不是一个约会的场所…但是它能帮到你.”

Now is the time to start finding language partners. Check out the Resources section above and use The Mixxer and Couchsurfing to find people who speak the language you want to learn. Attempt to spend a few hours everyday practicing your language. At this point, because you have a basic grasp of the language, it shouldn’t be a chore—you are basically spending time socializing with new friends.

现在,是时候开始寻找学习伙伴了。登录上述的学习资源区,使用Mixxer 和Couchsurfing 找到讲你所学的语言的人。每天花几个小时努力练习讲,这样的话,因为你掌握了基本的语言知识,你基本上能与些新的朋友进行社会交流,不要把它当做一项繁杂的日常工作。

Try reading simple books in your target language and underlining words that you don’t know. You can add these to your memorization app.

试着看些简单的用目的语写的书,在新单词下划线,并把这些单词输进你的记忆应用软件里。

You should start trying to think in the new language. Every time you try to express a thought to yourself, but can’t remember the word, write it down in your memorization software. Continue learning 30 words and phrases per day.

你应该用新语言的思维思考问题。每次你想表达想法的时候,而又没记住单词,就把单词写进你的记忆软件里,坚持每天学习30个单词和短语。

Days 61-90

61-90天内的学习计划。

By day 60, you should be in a good position to speak the language. You just simply need to keep practicing. Have deeper conversations with your language partners. Try to go out with them as much as possible—I’ve even found that a moderate amount of alcohol helps significantly with language practice.

到60天的时候,你对口语表达应该能运用自如了,你只需要保持练习就可以。与你的学习伙伴进行更具深度的对话交流,尝试一下尽可能与他们出去。我甚至发现,适量的酒精明显有助于语言练习。Continue studying 30 words a day and practicing the ones you’ve already learned, and you’ll be approaching the 3000 word mark—enough to speak a language close to fluently.

坚持每天学习30个单词,坚持练习那些你学过的单词,你会达到3000单词的学习要求,对于能流利地讲一门语言已经足够了。.

By now, you can start watching TV and reading books in your target language. Rent some DVDs in the foreign language and try to follow along. If you need to, turn on the subtitles. Don’t worry if you have trouble, because understanding film is a lot more difficult than having a one-on-one conversation.

现在,你要开始用目的语看电视看书。借些外语的DVD,试着跟学。如果需要的话,看着字幕练习。如果不行的话,不着急,因为看懂电影比进行一对一谈话难得多。

Keep on working on the language for several hours per day, and by the end of the month, you’ll find that you have a good grasp on the language. It’s pretty amazing what you can do in just 90 days with intense focus.

坚持每天花几个小时学习语言,等到月末,你会发现你已经很好地掌握了这门语言,只用了90天的高度集中学习,你就实现了你想做的是,是件很棒很美的事。

Conclusion

结论

You’ve unlocked a new skill. Language learning is about building a new habit—the habit of thinking and speaking in a new language. And once you perfect a single language, you’ve laid the foundation for doing even more.

恭喜你!你做到了---你只用了90天,就学会了一门语言。最棒的是你发现接下来你更快地学会了另一门语言。你经历了学习一门语言最艰难的部分。你开启了一项新技能。学习语言就是养成一种新习惯,一种用新语言思考和表达的习惯。曾经你只会一门单一的语言,现在你为学到更多种语言打下了基础。Imagine, the next time you meet a waiter or tourist from Italy or Mexico or Greece, you could start talking, tell a joke, and—if you can remember the punchline in time—get to experience the elation of making someone laugh in their own language.

想象一下,下次你碰到一位来自意大利或墨西哥或希腊的服务员或游客,你可以与他们交流了,讲一个笑话,-------若你刚好记得那串妙语连珠-------感受一下用别人的语言让他们发笑的兴奋心情吧!That, my friends, is zen.

我的朋友们,那是禅学的奥妙所在。