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新世纪研究生英语A课文翻译超缩便携版(可正反打印)

英翻汉:第二单元:(因特网不能做什么)

第1段:"It is impossible that old prejudices and hostilities should longer exist, while such an instrument has been created for the exchange of thought between all the nations of the earth." acclaimed Victorian enthusiasts on the arrival in 1858 of the first transatlantic telegraph cable. People say that sort of thing about new technologies, even today. Biotechnology is said to be the cure for world hunger. The sequencing of the human genome will supposedly eradicate cancer and other diseases. The wildest optimism, though, has greeted the Internet. A whole industry of cyber gurus has enthralled audiences (and made a fine living)with exuberant claims that the Internet will prevent wars, reduce pollution, and combat various forms of inequality. However, although the Internet is still young enough to inspire idealism, It has also been around long enough to test whether the prophets can be right.在1858年第一根横穿大西洋的通讯电缆铺设成功时,维多利亚时代的积极分子们曾欢呼说:“像电报这种为世界各国交流思想的工具诞生之后;那些根深蒂固的偏见与敌意不可能再长时间存在了。”甚至在今天,人们仍以同样的口吻谈论着各种新技术.生物工程被说成是解决温饱问题的妙方。人类基因组的排序据说可以彻底根治癌症和其他疾病.然而,人们把最盲目乐观的想法倾注在了因特网上。网络专家们的整个行业曾用令人驰神往的美妙话语(并因此而获得了不菲的收入)称,因特网可以防止战争、减少污染;还能克服种种形式的不平等。然而,尽管因特网出现的时间不长,依旧足以激起理想主义的灵感,但它存在的时间也已长得足以判断预言家的预言正确与否了。

第4段:The mistake people make is to assume that wars are caused simply by the failure of different peoples to understand each other adequately. Indeed , even if that were true, the Internet can also be used to advocate conflict. Hate speech and intolerance flourish in its murkier corners, where government find it hard to intervene. Although the Internet undeniably fosters communication, It will not put an end to war. 人们所犯的错误就在于他们认为战争的爆发是由于不同种族间缺乏充分的理解而引起的。其实;即使真的如此;因特网也同样可用于鼓动冲突、充满憎恨的演说和偏狭的见解在阴暗的角落里滋生蔓延,政府却感到难以于预、不可否认,尽管因特网可以增进交流,它却无法消除战争。

第11段:Even inequality may, in some cases, be reduced thanks to the Internet. A computer programmer in Bangalore or Siberia can use the Internet to work for a software company in Seattle without leaving home, and can expect to be paid a wage that is closer to that of his virtual colleagues at the other end of the cable. The effect is to reduce income inequality between people doing similar jobs in different countries, but to increase the inequality between information workers in poor countries and their poorest compatriots.在某些情况下,由于有了因特网,不平等现象也有可能会减少。一位在班加罗尔或是西伯利亚的电脑编程人员。在足不出户的情况下,可以用因特网为一家在西雅图的软件公司工作;并能期望得到一份与在网络另一端工作的虚拟同事们相近的收八。其效果是减少在不同国家从事类似工作的人们之间收入上的不平等,但这么做却拉大了贫穷国家中从事信息产业的人们与他们最贫穷同胞之间收入上的差距。

第12段:The Internet changes many things. It has had a dramatic impact on the world of business. Firms can now link their systems directly to those of their suppliers and partners, can do business online around the clock, and can learn more than ever about their customers, Economies may be more productive as a result. For individuals, e-mail has emerged as the most important new form of personal communication since the invention of the telephone.因特网改变着许多事物。它已对商务领域产生了巨大的影响、公司能够把它们的系统与其产品供应商和合作伙伴直接相连;可以在网上24小时地进行交易,可以比以往更多地了解他们的顾客。经济的运行因此将更有成果。对个人而言,电子邮件已经成为自电话问世之后最为重要的新型人际交流方式。

第三单元:沙漠

第4段:Deserts are difficult places in which to live. During the day they are very hot. In the Libyan desert in North Africa the temperature on 13 September 1922 reached 58℃in the shade! But desert nights are often cold because clear skies allow heat to escape into the atmosphere. The lack of water caused by low rainfall is bad enough, but rainfall is also highly unpredictable. Y ears of drought can end in tremendous rainstorms. Many desert areas are bare rock, or are covered with pebbles and gravel. Sand accounts only about 15 per cent of the Earth's desert regions. In some deserts, the total rain for the year might fall in only two or three storms. But that is enough for plant seeds to sprout and bloom, turning parts of the desert into carpets of flowers for a few days.沙漠是生物生存十分困难的地方。白天天气特别炎热, 1922年9月13日,北非利比亚沙漠在阴处测量的温度竟高达58度!沙漠晚上很冷,晴朗的天空很快使地热迅速散发到大气层中。沙漠中因降雨量少而使缺水现象非常严重,而是否下雨又难以预测,连年的干旱之后可能是大雨倾盆。许多沙漠地区是光秃秃的岩石,或被鹅卵石和沙砾所覆盖。沙土只占沙漠地区的15%。在一些沙漠地区,全年的降雨量也许只有一两场。但这足以为植物的播种和生长提供必要水分,使部分沙漠地区有几天特覆盖着簇簇鲜花。

第四单元:论三种疲劳

第1段:Fatigue is one of the most common complains brought to doctors, friends, and relatives. Y ou'd think in this era of labor-saving devices and convenient transportation that few people would have reason to be so tired. But probably more people complain of fatigue today than in the days when hay was baled by hand and laundry scrubbed on a washboard.疲劳是人们向医生、朋友和亲戚经常抱怨的问题之一。或许你会认为在这个拥有各种节省体力装置和方便交通设施的时代,没有人会有理由感到如此疲劳、然而,与用手捆干草。用搓衣板洗衣服的过去相比,今天抱怨疲劳的人却更多了。

第2段:The causes of modern-day fatigue are diverse and only rarely related to excessive physical exertion. The relatively few people who do heavy labor all day long almost never complain about being tired, perhaps because they expect to be. Today, physicians report, tiredness is more likely a consequence of under-exertion than of wearing yourself down with over-activity. In fact, increased physical activity is often prescribed as a cure for sagging energy.现代疲劳症的原因各种各样;但是很少与过多的体力消耗活动有关、相对而言,为数不多的整天干重活的人他们从不抱怨劳累,这也许是因为他们都预料到了。今天,据医生们说,疲劳是由于过少的活动所至,而不是由于过多活动导致。其实,增加体力活动往往是治愈人们体力消耗的一个处方。

第8段:Emotional problems and conflicts, especially depression and anxiety. Are by far the most common causes of prolonged fatigue? Fatigue may represent a defence mechanism that prevents you from having to face the true cause of your depression, such as the fact that you hate your job. It is also your body's safety valve for expressing repressed emotional conflicts, such as feeling trapped in an ungrateful role or an unhappy marriage. When such feelings are not expressed openly, they often come out as physical symptoms, with fatigue as one of the most common manifestations. "Many people who are extremely fatigued do not even know they're depressed," Dr. Bulette says. "They're so busy distracting themselves or just worrying about being tired that they do not recognize their depression."第三,心理上的.情绪问题和烦恼,特别是忧郁和焦虑是长期疲劳的最常见的原因、疲劳可以是一种保护机制,阻碍你去正视你感到压抑的真正原因;比如你厌恶你的工作;疲劳也是你体内的一种安全阀,用以表达压抑的情绪上的烦恼,比如你感到陷进了一个不能发挥作用的工作或者一个不幸的婚姻.当这种情感不能公开得以宣泄时,身体上就往往会产生某些症状,疲劳则是最常见的表现形式。“许多极度疲劳的人甚至不知道自己患了抑郁症,”布莱特博士说,“他们根本不去注意自己的情绪,或者说他们只担“自己的疲劳,以至于没有意识到自己的抑郁底”第五单元:

第一段:It is generally accepted that the experiences of the child in his first years largely determine his character and later personality. Every experience teaches the child something and the effects are cumulativ e. …Upbringing‟ is normally used to refer to the treatment and training of the child within the home. This is closely related to the treatment and training of the child in school, which is usually distinguished by the term …education‟. In a society such as ours, both parents and teachers are responsible for the opportunities provided for the development of the child, so that upbringing and education are interdependent.人们一般认为孩子最初几年的经历对其性格以及以后个性的培养影响很大。每一种经历都会交给孩子一些东西,而且其影响也在日积月累。抚养通常指在家里对孩子的培养和锻炼,这和学校对孩子的培养和锻炼密切相关。二者之间的区别则在于学校所作的通常被称为教育。在我们的社会里,家长与教师都要对孩子今后的发展负责,因而父母的抚养和学校的教育相辅相成、缺一不可。

第五段:Intelligent parents, however, realize that the particular setting of each family is unique, and the can be on rigid general rules. They use general information only as a guide in making decisions and solving problems. For example, they will need specific suggestions for problems such as speech defects or backwardness in learning to walk or control of bodily functions. In the more general sense, though, problems of upbringing are recognized to be problems of relationships within the individual family, the first necessity being a secure emotional background with parents who are untied in their attitude to their children. 然而聪明的父母意识到每个特定的家庭都有其独特的背景,抚养孩子没有普遍适用的规则。在他们做决策和解决问题时,一般性的知识仅供他们参考。譬如,怎样帮助孩子克服语言缺陷、如何解决孩子学走路较晚或者控制身体功能方面的问题,这时他们他们需要的是具体的建议。但从更加普遍的意义上来说,培养孩子的问题就是一个家庭内部的关系问题,其中首要前提是孩子与父母在一起要有安全感,他们在对待孩子的态度上必须一致。第六段:All parents have to solve the problems of freedom and discipline. The younger the child, the more readily the mother gives in to his demands to avoid disappointing him. She knows that if his energies are not given an outlet, her child‟s continuing development may be warped. An example of this is the young child‟s need to play with the mud and sand and water.

A child must be allowed to enjoy this …messy‟ but tactile stage of discovery before he is ready to go no to the less physical pleasures of toys and books. Similarly, throughout life, each stage depends on the satisfactory completion of the one before. 所有的父母必须解决孩子的自由与纪律的问题。孩子越小,母亲为了不令其感到失望,就越容易对孩子的要求作出让步。因为她知道,如果孩子的精力得不到发泄,那么他日后的发展就会受到阻碍。小孩子喜欢玩泥巴,沙子和水就说明了这一点。在儿童乐于接受玩具、书本这些脑力活动前,我们必须允许他们从这个“凌乱”但又是通过触觉去发现的阶段中得到乐趣。同样,在人的一生当中,每个阶段的发展都是依靠前一个阶段的圆满完成。

第九段:Every parent watches eagerly the child‟s acquisition of ea ch new skill---the first spoken words, the first independent steps, or the beginning of reading and writing. It is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, but this can set up dangerous feelings of failure and states of anxiety in the child. This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities, he loses his natural zest for life and his desire to find out new things for himself.每一位父母都渴望看到自己孩子所获得的每一种新技能,例如孩子第一次开口说话,第一次在无人帮助的情况下走路,或是学会了阅读和写作。拔苗助长、超前学习常常诱惑着家长,但这会使孩子养成一种害怕失败,焦虑不安的心理状态。这种拔苗助长的情况在任何年龄阶段都可能发生。婴儿有时会被家长过早的强迫使用卫生间,小孩子会在还不懂得词语本身的含义时而被迫进行阅读。但另一方面,家长如果对孩子放任不管,致使他没有学习的机会,那么孩子就会失去对生活的热情,失去对新事物的好奇心。

第六单元

第六段:Perhaps the most commonly voiced objection to volunteer participation during the under-graduate years is that it consumes time and energy that the student might otherwise devote to "academic" pursuits. This argument has been laid to rest by the results of our longitudinal analyses, which reveal significant positive effects on all ten academic outcomes included in the study. While the analyses reveal that the net benefit attributable to service participation is quite small in the case of a student's grade point average-- about 1 grade point -- the fact remains that the effect is indeed positive and statistically significant. Among students who had at least a B+average in high school, 69 percent of the service participants (compared to 56 percent of the non-participants) were able to maintain at least a B+average in college. Among those who entered college with a B or lower average, 27 percent of the service participants (compared to 19 percent of the non-participants) were able to improve to at least a B+average in college.反对在大学期间自愿参加社会服务的最普遍的呼声也许是认为社会服务占去了学生的时间和精力,否则,学生会用这些时间和精力去做学术研究。这一争论已随着我们纵向分析结果的出现而平息。因为分析结果表明10门学习成绩都受到社会服务显著的正面影响。分析表明,尽管从学生的平均积分点看,对他们直接的收益很小----大约为一个积分点,但事实上其影响是积极的,从统计学角度来看很明显。在那些高中成绩至少是平均B+的学生中,69%的参加社会服务的学生(同56%的不参加社会服务的学生相比)能在大学保持至少平均B+的成绩;在那些入学时成绩为B或低于平均分的学生中,27%的参加社会服务的学生(19%不参加社会服务的学生相比)能在大学至少将成绩提高到平均为B+。

第八段:In the area of life skills, service participants show greater positive change than do non-participants in terms of all eight outcomes analyzed, with the largest differences occurring in understanding community problems, knowledge of different races/cultures, acceptance of different races/cultures, and interpersonal skills. Other significant
differences that …favor service participants include understanding the nation's social problems, the ability to work cooperatively, skills in conflict resolution, and the ability to think critically.在生活能力上,从所分析的8门课程成绩看,参加社会服务的学生比那些不参加社会服务的的学生表现出更为积极的变化。其中最大的变化在于对社会问题的理解,对不同种族/文化的认识,对不同种族/文化的认可,以及人际交往能力的提高。其他有益的变化还包括对这个国家的社会问题的理解,合作能力、解决社会冲突问题的能力以及严谨思考的能力提高。

第八段:In the area of life skills, service participants show greater positive change than do non-participants in terms of all eight outcomes analyzed, with the largest differences occurring in understanding community problems, knowledge of different races/cultures, acceptance of different races/cultures, and interpersonal skills. Other significant differences that …favor service participants include understanding the nation's social problems, the ability to work cooperatively, skills in conflict resolution, and the ability to think critically.在生活能力上,从所分析的8门课程成绩看,参加社会服务的学生比那些不参加社会服务的的学生表现出更为积极的变化。其中最大的变化在于对社会问题的理解,对不同种族/文化的认识,对不同种族/文化的认可,以及人际交往能力的提高。其他有益的变化还包括对这个国家的社会问题的理解,合作能力、解决社会冲突问题的能力以及严谨思考的能力提高。

新世纪研究生公共英语教材阅读a课文翻译和答案(20140922150141)

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