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美国文学

1.The Literature of Colonial America殖民主义时期的文学

17世纪早期English and European explorers开始登陆美洲。在他们之前100多年Caribbean Islands, Mexico and other Parts of South America已被the Spanish占领。

17th早期English settlements in Virginia and Massachusetts(弗吉尼亚和马萨诸塞)开始了美国历史

美国最早殖民者(earliest settlers)included Dutch ,Swedes ,Germans ,French ,Spaniards ,Italians and Portuguese (荷兰人,瑞典人,德国人,法国人,西班牙人,意大利人及葡萄牙人等)。美国早期文学主要为the narratives and journals of these settlements采用in diaries and in journals(日记和日志),他们写关于the land with dense forests and deep-blue lakes and rich soil. 第一批美国永久居民:the first permanent English settlement in North America was established at Jamestown,Virginia in 1607(北美弗吉尼亚詹姆斯顿)。

船长约翰·史密斯Captain John Smith他的作品(reports of exploration)17th早期出版,被认为是美国第一部真正意义上的文学作品in the early 1600s,have been described as the first distinctly American literature written in English.他讲述了filled with themes, myths, images, scenes, character and events,吸引了朝圣者和清教徒前往lure the Pilgrims and the Puritans.

美国第一位作家:1608年Captain John Smith写了封信《自殖民地第一次在弗吉尼亚垦荒以来发生的各种事件的真实介绍》“A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Hath Happened in Virginia Since the First Planting of That Colony”.

他的第二本书1612年《弗吉尼亚地图,附:一个乡村的描述》“A Map of Virginia: with a Description of the Country”.

他一共出版了八本书,其中有关于新英格兰的历史及描述。其破产后做为向导sought a post as guide to the Pilgrims.他1624年《弗吉尼亚通史》“General History of Virginia”,讲述了传奇故事how the Indian princess Pocahontas( 波卡洪特斯)saved him.

他保存了殖民者在Jamestown早期开荒史及explored the rivers and bays around the Chesapeake region(切萨皮克地区),最重要的是he saw from the beginning what was eventually to be a basic principle of American history, the need of “workers”instead of “gentlemen”for the tough job of planting colonies and pushing the frontiers westward.

早期新英格兰文学主要关于theological, moral, historical and political.

清教徒坚韧耐劳,严格遵守教义the Puritans in New England embraced hardships, together with the discipline of a harsh church想建立神权社会found a theocracy,他们生活简朴,意志坚定,我行我素,不屈不挠地斗争they had toughness, purpose and character, they grappled strongly with challenges they set themselves.他们的基本价值观:注重勤劳,节俭,虔诚和节制hard work, thrift, piety and sobriety这些也成了早期美国作品主导思想。

2.Roger Williams

他写过《开启美国语言的钥匙》或也叫做《美洲新英格兰部分土著居民语言指南》“A Key into the Language of America”or “A Help to the language of the Natives in That Part of America Called New England”

3.Edward Taylor

清教徒诗人中最杰出的一位the best of the Puritan poets 他的作品遵循了十七世纪中期一些杰出诗人风格和形式his work followed they style and forms of the leading English poets of the mid-seventeenth century。他大部分作品关于宗教的,大部分诗歌直接以赞美诗为基础进行创作的most of Taylor’s work treated religious themes, with many poems based directly on the Psalms.在世时没出版过作品,1937年发现手稿,1960年泰勒诗歌全集。

4.托马斯·杰弗逊

《独立宣言》Thomas Jefferson “Declaration of Independence

1785年杰弗逊:《弗吉尼亚洲的声明》Jefferson’s “Notes on the State of Virginia”;

5.Benjamin Franklin 本杰明·富兰克林

《穷人理查德的年鉴》“Poor Richard’s Almanac”,他最好作品收录在《自传》“Autobiography”

6.Washington Irving华盛顿·欧文

Bracebridge Hall布雷斯布里奇田庄(1822),The Legend of Sleepy Hollow《睡谷传奇》,Tales of a Traveller旅客谈(1824),Christopher Columbus (1828),《作者自叙》:“The Author’s Account of Himself”

7.James Fenimore Cooper詹姆斯·芬尼莫·库珀

The Spy (1821): a historical novel

The Pilot (1824): a sea novel

Leatherstocking Tales皮裹腿故事集(1823-1841): frontier novels

The Last Mohicans (1826) (Colonial War betw. Britain and France)

8.William Cullen Bryant威廉·卡伦·布莱恩特

《死之思考》:“Thanatopsis”

《致水鸟》:“To a Waterfowl”

9.Edgar Allan Poe埃德加·阿伦·坡

《给海伦》:“To Helen”

《乌鸦》:“The Raven”

《安娜贝尔·李》“Annabel Lee”

《鄂榭府崩溃记》“The Fall of the House of Usher”

10.Philip Freneau 菲利浦·弗瑞诺

美国革命诗人”(the poet of the Revolution);“美国诗歌之父”(Father of American Poetry). 《想象的力量》(The Power of Fancy、野忍冬花》:“The Wild Honey Suckle”

《印第安人的坟地》:“The Indian Burying Ground”、《致凯提·迪德》:“To a Caty-Did”

11.Transcendentalism (essayists, poets, novelists)超验主义

超验主义(1830s—the Civil War):既不讲究逻辑,也不讲究系统,它只强调超越理性的感受,超越法律和世俗束缚的个人表达,他们相信精神上的超越,相信无所不能的善的力量,强调善为万物之源,万物都是善的一部分as a moral philosophy, transcendentalism was neither logical nor systematized. It exalted feeling over reason, individual expression over the restraints of law and custom. They believed in the transcendence of the “Oversoul”, an all-pervading power for goodness from which all things come and of which all things are a part.

.Features:

(1) stress on Oversoul, that is spirit.

(2) stress the importance of individual.

(3) fresh conception of nature.

Significance:

(1) inspired a whole generation of writers such as Whitman, Melville and Dickinson.

(2) dresses man’s subjective initiative as opposed to materialism.

(3) liberated people from Calvin’s original sin

12.Ralph Waldo Emerson 拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生

The Divinity School Address神学院致辞(1838)

Essays (1841/1847)、Representative Men (1850)、English Traits (1856)、Poems (1847)

《论自然》:“Nature”; 《论自助》:“Self-Reliance”

13.Henry David Thoreau亨利·戴维·梭罗

1854年,梭罗根据他在沃尔登湖畔居住两年经历写出名作《瓦尔登湖》“Walden”, the superb book came out of his two-year’s residence at Walden Pond 在这部书中阐释了他去体验这种生活的原因,他认为一个一星期最好工作一天,而剩下的六天时间则用来思索,他也认为人类心灵的自助和独立最为重要,每个人都应该发现自己的生活方式he explained many of the beliefs that led him to try this kind of life. He thought it better for a man to work one day a week and the rest of the week could be devoted to thought. For Thoreau, as for Emerson, self-reliance and independence of mind ranked above all each should find out his own way of living. Walden:

(1)on self-cultivation and human perfectibility, elevated from Puritan original sin, believe in inner virtue and inwardly grace

(2) criticism on civilization and capitalism

(3) only truth and knowledge can’t be taken away, trust in future and in man

作品:A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers康考德和梅里马克河上的一周(1849) Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854)

Civil Disobedience 不服从论(1849, an address)

14:Nathaniel Hawthorne纳撒尼尔·霍桑

霍桑独特的才能主要表现在他能够通过一些极具象征意义的故事来触摸人类灵魂深处的道德品质,最好的例证便是波士顿清教徒引以自娱的《红字》,小说的每一个字,每一幅画面和每一个事件都能够达到了一个特定的效果,它讲述了关于罪的故事,罪对不同人的影响以及有些人获得拯救的故事Hawthorne’s unique gift was for the creation of strongly symbolic stories which touch the deepest roots of man’s moral nature. The finest example is the recreation of Puritan Boston, “The Scarlet Letter”. In this novel each word, image, and event works toward a single effect. It is a complex story of guilt, its effects upon various persons, and how deliverance is obtained for some of them.

在他的短篇小说中,他通过活生生,极有象征意味的想象来体现人类社会的一些重大道德问题his ability to create vivid and symbolic images that embody great moral questions appear strongly in his short stories。霍桑的杰出之处在于他能把一个故事安放在自己设置的正义标准之中来讲述,他在书中所讲的正义标准成为了当时人们的道德参考it was Hawthorne’s ability to make a story exist in its own right but at the same time appear as a moral symbol. 霍桑同埃德加·阿伦·坡并称为美国短篇小说现代艺术大师,他们都创作了独一无二的小说形式样Hawthorne shares with Edgar Allan Poe the distinction of advancing the art of the short story, giving to the form qualities that are uniquely American。霍桑同麦尔维尔一样都采用了讲故事的手法来探讨生活的意义to Hawthorne and Melville, hower, the telling of a tale was a way of inquiring into the meaning of life.

作品:《伊桑·布兰德》、《小伙子布朗》、《海德格博士的体验》、《野心勃勃的客人》、《巨石脸》。“Ethan Brand”; “Young Goodman Brown”; “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment”; “The Ambitious Guest”; “The Great Stone Face”.

教材作品:《红字》:“The Scarlet Letter”

16:Henry Wadsworth Longfellow亨利·沃兹沃思·朗费罗

朗费罗去世后被安葬在威斯敏斯特教堂的诗人之角,他也是美国惟一获此殊荣的诗人,他的诗歌因高雅宜人,纯正有韵味而大受欢迎after his death, he became the only American to be honored with a bust in the Poet’s corner of Westminster Abbey. The gentleness, sweetness, and purity for which his poetry was popular during his lifetime.

教材作品:《人生礼赞》:“A Psalm of Life”;

《奴隶的梦》:“The Slave’s Dream”;

《逝去的青春》;“My Lost Youth”;

《海华沙之歌海华沙的禁食》“The Song of Hiawatha Hiawatha’s Fasting”

17.Herman Melville 赫尔曼·麦尔维尔

Moby Dick (《白鲸》1851): masterpiece

(1) a whaling book: an encyclopedia of whaling/description of a whaler’s life

(2) a tragedy about man fighting against universe (hostile) Man in this universe lives a meaningless and futile life, meaningless because futile.

Man can observe and even manipulate in a prudent way, but he cannot influence and overcome nature at its source.

(3) alienation异化:

between man and man

between man and society (ship)

between man and nature

Ahab is the best representative.

To him the world exists for his sake. His selfhood must be asserted at the expense of all else: lives may be sacrificed, and nature may have to be vanquished in order that he may do what he wills. Richard Chase says: the idea Melville conveys in it is "death---spiritual, emotional, physical".

(5) theme: quest

(6) symbolism

the voyage: a metaphor for "search and discovery, the search for the ultimate truth of experience". the Pequod皮阔德: the ship of the American soul

the endeavor of the crews: "the maniacal fanaticism of our white mental consciousness"

Moby Dick: (many interpretations) the symbol of nature

18:Walt Whitman沃尔特·惠特曼

《自己之歌》:”Song of Myself”

《我坐在这儿眺望着》:”I Sit and Look Out”

《敲呀!敲呀!鼓啊!》:”Drum-Taps Beat! Beat! Drums”

Leaves of Grass《草叶集》

19.Emily Dickinson爱米丽·狄金森

《我品味未经酿造的饮料》:”I taste a liquor never brewed”

《我意识到一场葬礼》:”I Felt a Funeral, in My Brain”

《鸟儿沿着小径过来》:”A Bird came Down the Walk-“

《我为美而死》:”I Died for Beauty-but Was Scarce”

《听到苍蝇的嗡嗡声-我死时》:”I Heard a Fly Buzz-when I died-“

《我不能等候死神》:”Because I Could not Stop for Death-“

I Am Nobody

20.Harriet Beecher Stowe哈丽雅特·比彻·斯托

《汤姆叔叔的小屋》:“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”

21.Mark Twain 马克·吐温

1865年,他第一本书《跳蛙》出版”Jumping Frog”;

1869年,《傻子国外旅行记》“Innocents Abroad”;

1872年,《艰苦岁月》“Roughing It”;

1873年,《镀金时代》“The Gilded Age”

1876年,《汤姆·索亚历险记》“The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”;

1883年,《密西西比河上的生活》“Life on the Mississippi”;

1884年,《哈克贝里·费恩历险记》”Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”;

1894年,《傻瓜威尔逊》“Pudd’n head Wilson”;

1900年,《败坏了哈德莱堡的人》“The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg”;

1906年,《什么是人?》“What is Man”;

1916年,《神秘来客》“The Mysterious Stranger”

22.O. Henry 欧·亨利

《四百万》The Four Million”;

最好单部小说:《旧知》、《麦珙的礼物》、《市政报告》、《没讲完的故事》、《月亮女神》、《吝啬爱人》、《装饰过的房间》“Retrieved Reformation”, “The Gift of the Magi”, “A Municipal Report”, “An Unfinished Story”, “Phoebe”, “A Lickpenny Lover”, “The Furnished Room”.

《警察与赞美诗》:”The Cop and the Anthem”

23.Henry James亨利·詹姆斯

《一个贵妇人的画像》:”The Portrait of A Lady”

24:Jack London杰克·伦敦

1900年第一本故事集《狼子》:”The Son of the Wolf”;

1903年《荒野的呼唤》:”The Call of the Wild”;

1903年《深渊中的人们》”The People of the Abyss”;

1904年《海狼》”The Sea Wolf”

1905年《附级的斗争》“The War of the Classes”;

1906年《白牙》”White Fang”

1908年《铁蹄》”The Iron Heel”

1909年纯自传小说《马丁·伊登》这部作品也是研究杰克·伦敦的核心学术文献“Martin Eden”

a central document for London scholars.

1910年《革命》“Revolution”

其他作品《生活的法则》”The Law of Life”.

25:Theodore Dreiser西奥多·德莱塞

教材作品:《嘉莉妹妹》:”Sister Carrie”

26:Ezra Pound埃兹拉·庞德

《一台古钢琴》:”A Virginal”

《再次致意》:”Salutation the Second”

《合同》:”A Pact”

《地铁站台》”In a Station of the Metro”

a Station of the Metro在地铁车站

1. This is the much-quoted masterpiece of Pound and a representative of the Imagist poetry.

? 2. In form, the poem is similar to the Japanese haiku, a two-line couplet with rhymes.

Pound's poem reminds the Chinese of two lines by a Tang poet, Bai Juyi. When describing the sad yet beautiful face of Yang Huifei, a Tang emperess, the poet wrote,

?The beautiful face, lonesome with tears;

? A pear branch, radiant with rain.

? 3. The poem is a representative of Imagist poems in that the image of petals on a wet,

black bough best represents the picture of those lovely faces in the crowd and that the

image is dominant in the poem---the image itself is the poem.

《长干行》”The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter”

Imagism意象派:

27:厄恩斯特·海明威Ernest Hemingway

《永别了,武器》“A Farewell to Arms”

《三个故事和十篇诗歌》”Three Stories and Ten Poems”

《太阳照样升起》“The Sun Also Rises”

《丧钟为谁而鸣》“For Whom the Bell Tolls”

《死在午后》“Death in the Afternoon”

《非洲的青山》“The Green Hills of Africa”

《过河入林》“Across the River and into the Trees”

《老人与海》“The Old Man and the Sea

28:威廉·福克纳William Faulkner

1929年《喧嚣与骚动》”The Sound and the Fury”

1930年《在我弥留之际》”As I Lay Dying”

《给艾米莉小姐的玫瑰》“A Rose for Emily”

29:约翰·斯坦贝尔John Steinbeck

《愤怒的葡萄》“The Grapes of Wrath”

30:Robert Frost罗伯特·弗洛斯特

《摘罢苹果》:”After Apple-Picking”

《没有走的路》:”The Road Not Taken”

? 1. The poem was written in very regular lines with iambic pentametre and rhyme scheme

of abaab.

? 2. The symbolic meaning of the two divergent roads is rather clear. They represent any

important decisions in one's life.

《雪夜林边小立》:”Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”

? 1. It is a lyric poem with iambic tetrametre and interlocking enclosed rhyme.

? 2. It represents a moment of relaxation from the onerous journey of life, an almost

aesthetic enjoyment and appreciation of natural beauty which is wholesome and retorative against the chaotic existence of modern man.

《部分》:”Departmental”

《设计》:”Design”

《大多数》:”The Most of It”

31:Thomas Stearns Eliot托马斯·斯特恩斯·爱略特

《荒原》是现代文学中的主要经典作品之一,讲述的主题就是第一次世界大战给人们的启示,荒原意味着西方文明的衰落,现代人在精神上和文化上的颓废,采用讽刺性对比,大量使用了文学引用,该作品中作者还创造了一种新的文学形式,即相关的主题在连续运动中构成交响效果“The Waste Land”, one of the major works of modern literature. Its subject, the apparent failure of western civilization which World War I seemed to demonstrate, suggested the spiritual debility of the modern individual and his culture while in satirical counterpoint his Sweeney poems had symbolized the rising tide of anticultural infidelity and human baseness. It used abundant of literary reference. It also introduced a form-the orchestration of related themes in successive movements.

《J·阿尔弗雷德·普鲁弗洛克的情歌》”The Love Song of J·Alfred Prufrock”

《序曲》”Preludes”

《三贤哲的旅程》“Journey of the Magi”

《空心人给老盖伊一文钱吧》“The Hollow Men A Penny for the Old Guy”

32.F· Scott Fitzgerald F·司格特·菲茨杰拉德

《了不起的盖茨比》”The Great Gatsby”

33:Carl Sandburg卡尔·桑德堡

《芝加哥》:”Chicago”

《港湾》:”The Harbor”

《雾》:”Fog”

《冰冷的墓》”Cool Tombs”

《闪烁的深红》”Flash Crimson”

《人民,是的》”The People, Yes”

34:The Lost Generation

? 1. term: It is a term in frequent use after WWI in reference to the young men who

survived physically but were afterwards spiritually and morally adrift. So the lost generation refers to disillusioned writers who wrote after WWI. Many of them went to the battle. After the war, they rebelled against former ideals and values and can’t find new ones to replace.

? 2. It first coined by Gertrude Stein. In Paris, she opens the door to American expatriates.

She once said to Hemingway, “You’re all a lost generation.”

? 3. It was used as preface to The Sun Also Rises. Then it became popular. Fitzgerald once

said they are “a generation grown up to find all gods died, all wars fought, all faith in men shaken”.

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