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美国文学

1.The Literature of Colonial America殖民主义时期的文学

17世纪早期English and European explorers开始登陆美洲。在他们之前100多年Caribbean Islands, Mexico and other Parts of South America已被the Spanish占领。

17th早期English settlements in Virginia and Massachusetts(弗吉尼亚和马萨诸塞)开始了美国历史

美国最早殖民者(earliest settlers)included Dutch ,Swedes ,Germans ,French ,Spaniards ,Italians and Portuguese (荷兰人,瑞典人,德国人,法国人,西班牙人,意大利人及葡萄牙人等)。美国早期文学主要为the narratives and journals of these settlements采用in diaries and in journals(日记和日志),他们写关于the land with dense forests and deep-blue lakes and rich soil. 第一批美国永久居民:the first permanent English settlement in North America was established at Jamestown,Virginia in 1607(北美弗吉尼亚詹姆斯顿)。

船长约翰·史密斯Captain John Smith他的作品(reports of exploration)17th早期出版,被认为是美国第一部真正意义上的文学作品in the early 1600s,have been described as the first distinctly American literature written in English.他讲述了filled with themes, myths, images, scenes, character and events,吸引了朝圣者和清教徒前往lure the Pilgrims and the Puritans.

美国第一位作家:1608年Captain John Smith写了封信《自殖民地第一次在弗吉尼亚垦荒以来发生的各种事件的真实介绍》“A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Hath Happened in Virginia Since the First Planting of That Colony”.

他的第二本书1612年《弗吉尼亚地图,附:一个乡村的描述》“A Map of Virginia: with a Description of the Country”.

他一共出版了八本书,其中有关于新英格兰的历史及描述。其破产后做为向导sought a post as guide to the Pilgrims.他1624年《弗吉尼亚通史》“General History of Virginia”,讲述了传奇故事how the Indian princess Pocahontas( 波卡洪特斯)saved him.

他保存了殖民者在Jamestown早期开荒史及explored the rivers and bays around the Chesapeake region(切萨皮克地区),最重要的是he saw from the beginning what was eventually to be a basic principle of American history, the need of “workers”instead of “gentlemen”for the tough job of planting colonies and pushing the frontiers westward.

早期新英格兰文学主要关于theological, moral, historical and political.

清教徒坚韧耐劳,严格遵守教义the Puritans in New England embraced hardships, together with the discipline of a harsh church想建立神权社会found a theocracy,他们生活简朴,意志坚定,我行我素,不屈不挠地斗争they had toughness, purpose and character, they grappled strongly with challenges they set themselves.他们的基本价值观:注重勤劳,节俭,虔诚和节制hard work, thrift, piety and sobriety这些也成了早期美国作品主导思想。

2.Roger Williams

他写过《开启美国语言的钥匙》或也叫做《美洲新英格兰部分土著居民语言指南》“A Key into the Language of America”or “A Help to the language of the Natives in That Part of America Call
ed New England”

他写过《开启美国语言的钥匙》或也叫做《美洲新英格兰部分土著居民语言指南》“A Key into the Language of America”or “A Help to the language of the Natives in That Part of America Called New England”

3.Edward Taylor

清教徒诗人中最杰出的一位the best of the Puritan poets 他的作品遵循了十七世纪中期一些杰出诗人风格和形式his work followed they style and forms of the leading English poets of the mid-seventeenth century。他大部分作品关于宗教的,大部分诗歌直接以赞美诗为基础进行创作的most of Taylor’s work treated religious themes, with many poems based directly on the Psalms.在世时没出版过作品,1937年发现手稿,1960年泰勒诗歌全集。

4.托马斯·杰弗逊

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