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Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

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M1: Water and Sanitation in Regard to the

Millennium Development Goals K. Conradin (1&3)M. Kropac (2&4)

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

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Credits Materials included in this CD-ROM comprise materials from various organisations.The

materials complied on this CD are freely available at the internet,following the

open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit use,provided proper

acknowledgement of the source is made.The publication of these materials on this

CD-ROM does not alter any existing copyrights.Material published on this CD for the

first time follows the same open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit

use,with all rights remaining with the original authors/producing organisations.

Therefore the user should please always give credit in citations to the original

author,source and copyright holder.

We thank all individuals and institutions that have provided information for this CD,

especially the German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ,Ecosanres,Ecosan

Norway,the International Water and Sanitation Centre IRC,the Stockholm

Environment Institute SEI,the World Health Organisation WHO,the Hesperian

Foundation,the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SIDA,the

Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries SANDEC of the Swiss

Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology,Sanitation by Communities

SANIMAS,the Stockholm International Water Institute SIWI,the Water Supply&

Sanitation Collaborative Council WSSCC,the World Water Assessment Programme of

the UNESCO,the Tear Fund,Wateraid,and all others that have contributed in some

way to this curriculum.

We apologize in advance if references are missing or incorrect,and welcome feedback

if errors are detected.

We encourage all feedback on the composition and content of this curriculum.

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Credits?ecosan Curriculum -Credits

?Concept and ecosan expertise:Johannes Heeb, Petter D. Jenssen, Ken

Gnanakan

?Compiling of Information: Katharina Conradin

?Layout:Katharina Conradin

?Photo Credits:Mostly Johannes Heeb & Katharina Conradin,

otherwise as per credit.

?Text Credits:As per source indication.

?Financial support:Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC)

?How to obtain the curriculum material

?Release: 1.0, March 2006, 1000 copies

?Feedback:Feedback regarding improvements, errors, experience

of use etc. is welcome. Please notify the above

?email-addresses.

?Sources Copyright:Copyright of the individual sources lies with the authors

or producing organizations. Copying is allowed as long

as references are properly acknowledged.

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Contents

1.The Water Circle

2.The global water resources situation

3.Freshwater use

http://www.doczj.com/doc/f568b553168884868762d699.htmlpeting uses for Freshwater

5.Increase freshwater demand

6.Water Scarcity

?Global Situation

?Reasons

?Consequences

7.Groundwater

?Reserves

?Depletion

8.Water Pollution

9.Basic Water Needs

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Water Resources –The global situation

10,000,000 km3 stored in underground aquifers.

119,000 km3net of rainfall falling on land after accounting for evaporation.

91,000 km3in natural lakes.

Over 5,000 km3in man made storage facilities reservoirs.

2,120 km3in rivers –constantly replaced from rainfall and melting snow, ice.

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Water Circle -General

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

The water cycle

The global water cycle is comprised of many small, local or regional water cycles, depending on the precipitation, the topography, soil characteristics and many other factors, which is illustrated by the figure below.

? P. Jenssen

Rise in sea level:

Water bound in snow and ice(glaciers,poles)is melting due to global change and climate warming.This results in a rise in the sea level between15and90 cm by the IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).This threatens millions of people living on small islands or close to the seashore. The rise in sea level is increased as a result of thermal expansion of the oceans–warmer water has a larger volume than colder water.

The effects include among others

?Increased coastal erosion,

?higher storm-surge flooding

?more extensive coastal inundation

?salt water intrusion

?increased flood risk

?impacts on agriculture and aquaculture through decline in soil and water quality.

Adopted from: (11, 5)

Different distribution patterns:

Different distribution patterns likely due to global climate change.

Regions now under water stress can get more rainfall–but also that water scarcity can even be increased.Vice versa,regions with sufficient rainfall can get drier as well.

It is likely that single occurrences are more intensive(droughts&floods). Increase in storage capacity:

There has been a7fold increase in global storage capacity since1950.

(artificial lakes,large dam projects etc.)(12).This has severe consequences on downstream ecosystems.

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Freshwater –Use

-Drinking water :By taking an average of 3l drinking water per day,the total volume used per capita/year is only roughly 1m 3Irrigation:In many countries,agricultural use (food production)makes up for most of the total human water usage.The production of animal calories needs 8times more water than that of vegetable calories.Energy Production:The largest single use of water by industry is for cooling in thermal power generation.Process water:P aper mills,textile firms http://www.doczj.com/doc/f568b553168884868762d699.htmlrge water volumes to be treated.Medium for waste disposal :Figures vary,but according to the WHO only between 0%and 35%of the wastewaters created get some kind of treatment.Most wastewaters are just induced into nearby waterbodies.

Water for products:as an ingredient Source: (1)

WBCSD WBCSD

WBCSD

Freshwater

Human activity Potential Impact Function at risk Population and

consumption

growth

Increased requirement Increases water abstraction & acquisition of cultivated land through wetland drainage.Virtually all ecosystem functions including habitat, production and regulation functions Infrastructure

development

(dams, dikes,

levees,

diversions etc.)Loss of integrity alters timing and quantity of river flows, water temperature, nutrient and sediment transport and thus delta replenishment; blocks fish

migrations

Water quantity and quality, habitats, floodplain fertility, fisheries, delta economies Land conversion Eliminates key components of aquatic environment; loss of functions; integrity; habitat and biodiversity; alters runoff patterns; inhibits natural recharge, fills water bodies with silt;

Natural flood control, habitats

for fisheries and waterfowl,

recreation, water supply, water

quantity and quality

Source: (12)

Freshwater Human activity Potential Impact Function at risk Overharvesting and exploitation Depletes living resources, ecosystem functions and biodiversity (groundwater depletion, collapse of fisheries)

Food production, water supply, water quality and water quantity Introduction

of exotic

species Competition from introduced species; alters production and nutrient cycling; and causes loss of

biodiversity among native

species

Food production, wildlife habitat, recreation Release of pollutants to land, air or water Pollution of water bodies alters

chemistry and

ecology of rivers, lakes and

wetlands; greenhouse gas

emissions produce dramatic

changes in runoff and rainfall

patterns Water supply, habitat, water quality, food production; climate change may also impact hydropower, dilution capacity, transport, flood control

S o u r c e : (12)

Source: (1)

Domestic use Agricultural use

Industrial use

Near congruence between there regions where the majority of the hunger-prone countries are located and the arid zone with savannah type climate.

?Seasonal rainfall with intermittent dry spells making the rainfall unreliable ?recurrent drought years

?high evaporative demand

?often vulnerable soils with low permeability and low water holding capacity ?Additionally,the area of irrigated land more than doubled in the twentieth century(5).

The freshwater use is going to increase drastically over the next couple of decades in order to produce enough food.

Thus,there is an urgent need for agricultural and water policies ?rainwater management

?rainfall infiltration

?water harvesting systems(2)

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Freshwater –Increased Demand

?In basically all developing countries,the freshwater use for food production will increase strongly.This can mainly be attributed to population growth –more people require more food,i.e.agricultural products.Meat production needs significantly more water than the production of vegetables.< 40 %

40 –80 %

80 –120 %

> 120 %

Missing Data

Percentage increase in consumptive water use for food production by 2015 compared to today

Source: (2)

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Water Scarcity –Global Situation

In 2000,the majority of the sixteen megacities were found along the coasts,within regions experiencing mild to severe water stress (particularly in Asia).The map uses a conventional measure of water stress,the ratio of total annual water withdrawals (1995)divided by the estimated total water availability (average 1961-1990).0 –0.2: Low water stress 0.2 –0.4: Medium water stress > 0.4 Severe water stress S o u r c e : (29)

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Water Scarcity –General

Water scarcity is a relative concept(social construct,product of affluence, expectations and customary behaviour,or a result of climate change)(3).

Scarcity often has its roots in water shortage.Drought-affected regions with large climatic variability suffer most(6).

Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of the population increase during the last century.(6).

By2025,1.8billion people will live in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity and2/3of the world population could be under stress conditions(UN)

(6).

In most countries,agriculture dominates the demand for water(irrigation).

(6).

Poor communities tend to suffer the greatest health burden from inadequate water supplies and as result of ill-health are unable to move out of a cycle of poverty and disease.(6).

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Water scarcity -Reasons

There are several reasons for water scarcity

1.Excessive withdrawal from surface waters:

2.The Aral Sea in the former Soviet Union,who has shrunk to less than

half of ifs original size,due to the diversion of the main contributing rivers.

19571984199320002001 Source: (4).

Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

Water Scarcity -Salinisation ?Salinisation is a general

term for all processes

which accumulate salts in

soil.It takes place mainly

in arid climates.

?→high evaporation

?→insufficient rainfall,

water(from rainfall or

irrigation)

?Water ascents,dissolved

salts are precipitated and accumulate at the soil surface.

Source: (34)

Salt accumulation M. Kropac