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2012考研英语真题

2012考研英语(一)真题参考答案

Section ⅠUse of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points)

The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices became an important issue recently. The court cannot_____ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law______ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that_____ the court’s reputation for being independent and impartial。

Justices Antonin Scalia and Samuel Alito Jr., for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court’s decisions will be____ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _____ by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself_______ to the code of conduct that ______to the rest of the federal judiciary。

This and other cases ______the question of whether there is still a _____ between the court and politics。

The framers of the Constitution envisioned law____ having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions ____ they would be free to ____those in power and have no need to_____ political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _____。

Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social ______like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it _____is inescapably political —which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily _____ as unjust。

The justices must _____doubts about the court’s legitimacy by making themselves _____to the code of conduct. That would make their rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _____, convincing as law。

1 A emphasizeB maintainC modifyD recognize

2 A whenB bestC beforeD unles

3 A renderedB weakenedC establishedD eliminated

4 A challengedB compromisedC suspectedD accepted 5. A advancedB caught C boundD founded 6. A resistantB subjectC immuneD prone 7. A resortsB sticksC leadsD applies 8. A evadeB raiseC denyD settle 9. A lineB barrier C similarity D conflict 10. A byB asC throughD towards 11.

A so

B since

C provided

D though 12. A serveB satisfyC upsetD replace 13. A confirm B express

C cultivate

D offer 14 A guardedB followedC studiedD tied

15. A concepts B theories C divisions D convenience16. A excludes B questions C shapes

D controls17. A dismissed B released C ranked D distorted18. A suppress B exploitC addressD ignore 19. A accessibleB. amiableC agreeable D accountable20. A by all meansB at all costsC in a wordD as a result

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (40 points)

Text 2 Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fused girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection,

even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests。

Girls' attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it's not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What's m ore, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children's marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years。

I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children's behaviour: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s。

Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a "third stepping stone" between infant wear and older kids' clothes. It was only after "toddler" became common shoppers' term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences – or invent them where they did not previously exist。

26 By saying "it is ... The rainbow"(line 3, Para 1), the author means pink _______。

A should not be the sole representation of girlhood

B should not be associated with girls' innocence

C cannot explain girls' lack of imagination

D cannot influence girls' lives and interests

27 According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?

A Colors are encoded in girls' DNA

B Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls

C Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders

D White is preferred by babies

28 The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological devotement was much influenced by ________。

[A] the marketing of products for children[B] the observation of children's nature

[C] researches into children's behavior[D] studies of childhood consumption

29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised ________。

A focuses on infant wear and older kids' clothes

B attach equal importance to different genders

C classify consumers into smaller groups

D create some common shoppers' terms

30. it can be concluded that girl's attraction to pink seems to be _____。

A clearly explained by their inborn tendency

B fully understood by clothing manufacturers

C mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen

D well interpreted by psychological experts

Part B Directions:

For questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into the numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph E has been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which does not fit in with the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points)

Part C Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. ( 10 points) Section Ⅲ Writing Part A 51. Directions:

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the notice. Use "Postgraduates' Association" instead. ( 10 points)

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should describe the picture briefly,explain its intended meaning, and give your comments。

You should write neatly on answer sheet 2.

2012年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题National Entrance Test of English for

MA/MSCandidates (NETEM) 跨考英语教研室—杨凤芝Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank

and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points)

The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices became an important issue

recently. The court cannot_____ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of

law______ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances,

justices acted in ways that_____ the court’s reputation for being independent

and impartial。

Justices Antonin Scalia and Samuel Alito Jr., for example, appeared at

political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court’s

decisions will be____ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that

the justices are not _____ by an ethics code. At the very least, the court

should make itself_______ to the code of conduct that ______to the rest of the

federal judiciary。

This and other cases ______the question of whether there is still a _____

between the court and politics。

The framers of the Constitution envisioned law____ having authority apart

from politics. They gave justices permanent positions ____ they would be free

to ____those in power and have no need to_____ political support. Our legal

system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are

so closely _____。

Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in

fundamental social ______like liberty and property. When the court deals with

social policy decisions, the law it ____is inescapably political — which

is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily _____ as unjust。

The justices must _____doubts about the court’s legitimacy by making

themselves _____to the code of conduct. That would make their rulings more

likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _____, convincing as law。

1 A emphasize B maintain C modify D recognize

2 A when B best C before D unless

3 A rendered B weakened C established D eliminated

4 A challenged B compromised C suspected D accepted 5. A advanced B caught C bound D founded

6. A resistant B subject C immune D prone

7. A resorts B sticks C leads D applies

8. A evade

B raise

C deny

D settle 9. A line B barrier C similarity D conflict 10. A by B as C through D towards 11. A so B since C provided D though 12. A serve B satisfy C upset D replace 13.

A confirm

B express

C cultivate

D offer 14 A guarded B followed C studied D tied

15. A concepts B theories C divisions D convenience16. A excludes B questions C shapes

D controls17. A dismissed B released C ranked D distorted18. A suppress B exploit C address D ignore 19. A accessible B. amiable C agreeable D accountable20. A by all means B at all costs C in a word D as a result

Section Ⅱ Reading ComprehensionPart A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by

choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (40 points)

Text 2

Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the

colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink

intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may

celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fused girls’

identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence。

Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’

lives and interests。

Girls' attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA,

but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies,

it's not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th

century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a

practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil

them. What's more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually

considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was

associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary,

constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the

mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant

children's marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it

began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female,

at least for the first few critical years。

I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception

of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological

development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts

developed after years of research into children's behaviour: wrong. Turns out,

according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was

popularised as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s。

Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase

sales, they should create a "third stepping stone" between infant wear and

older kids' clothes. It was only after "toddler" became common shoppers'

term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting

kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to

boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to

magnify gender differences –or invent them where they did not previously exist。

26 By saying "it is ... The rainbow"(line 3, Para 1), the author means pink _______。

A should not be the sole representation of girlhood

B should not be associated with girls' innocence

C cannot explain girls' lack of imagination

D cannot influence girls' lives and interests

27 According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?

A Colors are encoded in girls' DNA

B Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls

C Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders

D White is preferred by babies

28 The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological

devotement was much influenced by ________。

[A] the marketing of products for children [B] the observation of children's nature

[C] researches into children's behavior[D] studies of childhood consumption

29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised ________。

A focuses on infant wear and older kids' clothes

B attach equal importance to different genders

C classify consumers into smaller groups

D create some common shoppers' terms

30. it can be concluded that girl's attraction to pink seems to be _____。

A clearly explained by their inborn tendency

B fully understood by clothing manufacturers

C mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen

D well interpreted by psychological experts

Part B

Directions:

For questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list

A-G and fill them into thenumbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph

E has been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which does not fit in with

the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points)

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments

into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

( 10 points)

Section Ⅲ Writing Part A

51. Directions:

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the notice. Use "Postgraduates'

Association" instead. ( 10 points)

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your

essay,you should

1) describe the picture briefly,2) explain its intended meaning, and

3) give your comments。You should write neatly on answer sheet 2.

1.B

2.A

3.B

4.D

5.C

6.B

7.D

8.B

9.A 10.B

11.A 12.C 13.C 14.D 15.A16.C 17.A 18.C 19.D 20.D

21.D 22.D 23.A 24.C 25.D26.C 27.A 28.A 29.B 30.B

31.A 32.D 33.B 34.D 35.D36.C 37.D 38.B 39.A 40.A

41.C 42.D 43.A 44.F 45.G

46.在物理学上,一种方法是将这种冲动完美发挥到极点并且导找到一种万能的理论---一条我们都可以看的见,明白的普遍公式。

47.在这里,达尔文主义似乎提供了一个准则,如果所有的人类都有共同的起源,那么文化差异能够追寻到更早的可控的起源也是合理的。

48.从我们的共同特征中过滤独特性能够使我们明白文化行为的复杂性起源以及是什么在进化方面和认知方面指导我们人类。

49、其实,由约书亚格林伯说,将更多的经验主义用在了普遍性上,验证许多语言所共有的特点,这些特点被认为是代表了由认知限制造成的偏见。

50. 乔姆斯基的语法应该表现了语言更改的模式,是通过独立的家谱或由它所跟踪的路径,而通过性预测的特定类型间的合作关系。

Part A

47.Directions:

Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day. Write and email to the customer service center to

1) make a complaint,and

2) demand a prompt solution.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use ―Zhang Wei‖ instead.

参考范文:

Dear Mr./Miss:

This letter is a complaint concerning the electronic dictionary I bought from your online store the other day. Two weeks ago I mailed the money that ordered and soon received the electronic dictionary. I followed the instructions attached with it. Instead I cannot get it started anyway. After changed the battery inside several times in vain,I totally gave it up.

I wrote to your company expecting a prompt solution to this problem. I would hope that you could do something to give me a satisfactory feedback. And I will appreciate it very much if you put a strict test on these electronic dictionaries ,thus stop the continuing complaints and suffers of other comtomers.

Sincerely Yours,

Zhang Wei

2012年考研英语真题:作文题目及范文

作文一些外国留学生将要来你的大学,以学生会的名义给他们写一封email,

1. 表示你的欢迎

2. 为他们在这里的校园生活提供一些建议

请写100个字左右,请不要在信的末尾写你的名字,用笔名代替,不要写地址。

范文

亲爱的同学们,

首先请允许我代表我校的各位领导老师及同学们对你们的到来表示热烈的欢迎,欢迎来到我校学习和生活。

不同国家的校园生活有所不同,为了使你们的生活更加舒适,下面我将介绍一些在我校生活的一些建议。

首先,在中国不可以直呼老师的名字,因为中国是一个礼仪之邦,中国人用称呼表达对老师的尊重。

其次,希望你们珍惜在中国学习的时间,主动增加与中国人交流的机会,这样既能提高你们的汉语水平,也能了解中国的文化。

最后,如果你们在生活和学习上遇到困难,及时与我们沟通。祝你们在中国的留学生活愉快!

学生会

Dear students,

First of all, allow me, on behalf of the leaders of our school teachers and students are warmly welcome to come to you, welcome to our school and life.

Campus life is different in different countries, in order to make your life more comfortable, the f ollowing I will describe some of the proposals in my school life.

First of all, cannot call the teacher's name in China, because China is a ritual of ceremony, Chin ese used to call the expression of respect for teachers.

Secondly, I hope you cherish the time studying in China, take the initiative to increase opportunities for interaction with Chinese people, so that both can improve your Chinese language level, can understand Chinese culture.

Finally, if you encounter difficulty in living and learning, to communicate with us in a timely

manner.Wishes you to study abroad in China live in interesting times!

Student Union

作文2:

2012考研英语真题

这幅漫画象征性的描述了一个倒在地上的瓶子,一些牛奶洒了出来。在这个瓶子的旁边站着两个人,一个垂头丧气的说―全完了!‖,而另一个则说―幸好还剩点儿!‖。这幅画所表达的内容既意义深远又发人深省。

这幅漫画的目的是告诉我们在生活、工作和学习中遇到挫折时,不同的人持有不同的态度。积极乐观的人总是能够发掘事情好的一面,而消极悲观的人总是为他失去的东西伤心抱怨。总之,一个人的态度能够决定他的成败。

在我看来,我们应该向那个积极乐观的人学习。在生活中无论遇到什么样的困难,我们都应该用积极乐观的态度来面对。只有这样,我们才能取得成功。

This cartoon token describes a bottle that fell to the ground, some milk spilled out. The bottle stands next to two people, a dejected saying "is all over! "While another said" Fortunately have left! ‖。The contents expressed in the painting is both meaningful and thought-provoking.

This cartoon is designed to tell us to live, work and learning are down, you, different people hold different attitudes. Optimistic people can always discover what's good side, and negative and pessimistic people always losing things sad for him to complain. In short, a person's attitudes can make or break him.

In my opinion, we should learn from the positive and optimistic man. No matter what difficulties she met in life, we should use a positive and optimistic attitude to face. Only in this way, we can be successful.

法硕联盟http://www.doczj.com/doc/d0b2fd18b7360b4c2e3f644b.html 是由北京大学、中国人民大学、中国政法大学、清华大学、西南政法大学等高校在读法律硕士学长创办的网站。自2007年成立以来,以在读学长多、法硕信息多、vip 会员分数高等优势享誉全国,特别是论坛法硕考前押题更是被全国法硕考生奉为考前必看资料(2012被媒体报道)。加入付费vip会员=权威名师课程+在读学长答疑+考前绝密预测。2012年论坛直接与中国最权威考研类图书出版社--高等教育出版社合作出版《2013年法律硕士历年真题及答案详解》一书,旨在打造最好的法硕真题图书,该书未出版即本广大法硕战友抢先预定。

我们一直用心在做,我们会竭力做得更好!

2011年考研英语一真题及答案

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as ―a bodily exercise precious to health.‖ But ---_____some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical filness Laughter does _____short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, ____ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to ____, a good laugh is unlikely to have _____ benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does.

____, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the ____, studies dating back to the 1930‘s indicate that laughter. muscles,

Such bodily reaction might conceivably help____the effects of psychological stress.Anyway,the act of laughing probably does produce other types of ______feedback,that improve an individual‘s emotional state. ______one classical theory of emotion,our feelings are pa rtially rooted _______ physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ______they are sad but they become sad when te tears begin to flow.

Although sadness also _______ tears,evidence suggests that emotions can flow _____ muscular responses.In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz.

1.[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like

2.[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce

3.[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining

4.[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe

5.[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable

6.[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief

7.[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected

8.[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes

9.[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance

10.[A]physical [B]mentl [C]subconscious [D]internal

11.[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for

12.[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at

13.[A]unless [B]until C]if [D]because

14.[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses

15.[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond

16.[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold

17.[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent

18.[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted

19.[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing

20.[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. ―Hooray! At last!‖ wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic.

One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little know n. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert‘s appointment in the Times, calls him ―an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.‖ As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise.

For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes.

Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today‘s live performances; moreover, they can be ―consumed‖ at a time and place of the listener‘s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert.

One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert‘s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into ―a markedly different, more vibrant organization.‖ But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra‘s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between Amer ica‘s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.

21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert‘s appointment has

[A]incurred criticism. [B]raised suspicion. [C]received acclaim. [D]aroused curiosity.

22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is

[A]influential. [B]modest. [C]respectable. [D]talented.

23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers

[A]ignore the expenses of live performances. [B]reject most kinds of recorded performances.

[C]exaggerate the variety of live performances. [D]overestimate the value of live performances.

24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?

[A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.

[B]They are easily accessible to the general public.

[C]They help improve the quality of music. [D]They have only covered masterpieces.

25. Regarding Gilbert‘s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels

[A]doubtful. [B]enthusiastic. [C]confident. [D]puzzled.

Text 2

When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving ―to pursue my goal of running a company.‖ Broadcasting his ambition was ―very much my decision,‖ McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29.

McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn‘t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don‘t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations.

As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders.

The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:‖I can‘t think of a single search I‘ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.‖Those who jumped without a job haven‘t alw ays landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later.

Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. ―The traditional rule was it‘s safer to stay where you are, but that‘s been fundamentally inverted,‖ says one headhunter. ―The people who‘ve been hurt the worst are those who‘ve stayed too long.‖

26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being

[A]arrogant. [B]frank. [C]self-centered. [D]impulsive.

27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives‘ quitting may be spurred by

[A]their expectation of better financial status. [B]their need to reflect on their private life.

[C]their strained relations with the boards. [D]their pursuit of new career goals.

28. The word ―poached‖ (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means

[A]approved of. [B]attended to. [C]hunted for. [D]guarded against.

29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

[A]top performers used to cling to their posts. [B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.

[C]top performers care more about reputations. [D]it‘s safer to stick to the traditional rules.

30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?

[A]CEOs: Where to Go? [B]CEOs: All the Way Up?

[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net [D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers

Text 3

The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. W hile traditional ―paid‖ media – such as television commercials and print advertisements – still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create ―owned‖ media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.

Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned m edia , such marketers act as the initiator for users‘ responses. But in some cases, one marketer‘s owned media become another marketer‘s paid media –for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies‘ marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.

The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them.

If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company‘s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg.

31.Consumers may create ―earned‖ media when they are

[A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.

[B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.

[C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.

[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products.

32. According to Paragraph 2,sold media feature

[A] a safe business environment. [B] random competition.

[C] strong user traffic. [D] flexibility in organization.

33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media

[A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers.

[B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing.

[C] may be responsible for fiercer competition.

[D] deserve all the negative comments about them.

34. Toyota Motor‘s experience is cited as an example of

[A] responding effectively to hijacked media.[B] persuading customers into boycotting products.

[C] cooperating with supportive consumers. [D] taking advantage of hijacked media.

35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ?

[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media. [C] Dominance of hijacked media. [D] Popularity of owned media.

Text 4

It‘s no surprise that Jennifer Senior‘s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, ―I love My Children, I Hate My Life,‖ is arousing much chatter – nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that ―the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.‖

The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive – and newly single –mom Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual ―Jennifer Aniston is pregnant‖ news. Practically every week features at least one celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstands.

In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing ? It doesn‘t seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn‘t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.

Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their ―own‖ (read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cake.

It‘s hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want chi ldren just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it‘s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren‘t in some small, subcon scious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting ― the Rachel‖ might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston.

36.Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring

[A]temporary delight [B]enjoyment in progress

[C]happiness in retrospect [D]lasting reward

37.We learn from Paragraph 2 that

[A]celebrity moms are a permanent source for gossip.

[B]single mothers with babies deserve greater attention.

[C]news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining.

[D]having children is highly valued by the public.

38.It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks

[A]are constantly exposed to criticism. [B]are largely ignored by the media.

[C]fail to fulfill their social responsibilities. [D]are less likely to be satisfied with their life.

39.According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is

[A]soothing .[B]ambiguous. [C]compensatory. [D]misleading.

40.Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

[A]Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms.

[B]Celebrity moms have influenced our attitude towards child rearing.

[C]Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life.

[D]We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing.

Part B

Directions:

The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs E and G have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr Menand points out, became a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees.

[B] His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on. These are disciplines that are going out of style: 22% of American college graduates now major in business compared with only 2% in history and 4% in English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to have a grounding in the basic canon of ideas that every educated person should posses. But most find it difficult to agree on what a ―general education‖ should look like.At Harvard, Mr Menand notes, ―the great books are read because they have been read‖-they form a sort of social glue.

[C] Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end up with professorships for which they entered graduate school. There are simply too few posts. This is partly because universities continue to produce ever more PhDs. But fewer students want to study humanities subjects: English departments awarded more bachelor‘s degrees in 1970-71 than they did 20 years later. Fewer students requires fewer teachers. So, at the end of a decade of theses-writing, many humanities students leave the profession to do something for which they have not been trained.

[D] One reason why it is hard to design and teach such courses is that they can cut across the insistence by top American universities that liberal-arts educations and professional education should be kept separate, taught in different schools. Many students experience both varieties. Although more than half of Harvard undergraduates end up in law, medicine or business, future doctors and lawyers must study a non-specialist liberal-arts degree before embarking on a professional qualification.

[E] Besides professionalizing the professions by this separation, top American universities have professionalised the professor. The growth in public money for academic research has speeded the process: federal research grants rose fourfold between 1960and 1990, but faculty teaching hours fell by half as research took its toll. Professionalism has turned the acquisition of a doctoral degree into a prerequisite for a successful academic career: as late as 1969a third of American professors did not possess one. But the key idea behind professionalisation, argues Mr Menand, is that ―the knowledge and skills needed for a par ticular specialization are transmissible but not transferable.‖So disciplines acquire a monopoly not just over the production of knowledge, but also over the production of the producers of knowledge.

[F] The key to reforming higher education, concludes Mr Menand, is to alter the way in which ―the producers of knowledge are produced.‖Otherwise, academics will continue to think dangerously alike, increasingly detached from the societies which they study, investigate and criticize.‖Academic inquiry, at least i n some fields, may need to become less exclusionary and more holistic.‖Yet quite how that happens, Mr Menand dose not say.

[G] The subtle and intelligent little book The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University should be read by every student thinking of applying to take a doctoral degree. They may then decide to go elsewhere. For something curious has been happening in American Universities, and Louis Menand, a professor of English at Harvard University, captured it skillfully.

G →41. →42. →E →43. →44. →45.

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) With its theme that ―Mind is the master weaver,‖ creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the book As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing.

(46) Allen‘s contribution was to take an assumption we all share-that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature. Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: ―Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ‖Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded : ― We do not attract what we want, but what we are.‖ Achievement happens because you as a person e mbody the external achievement; you don‘t ― get”success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter.

Part of the fame of Allen‘s book is its contention that ―Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him.‖ (48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom.

This ,however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fat,

(49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been ―wronged‖ then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation .Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person‘s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual.

The sobering aspect of Allen‘s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible.

Section ⅢWriting

Part A

51. Directions:

Write a letter to a friend of yours to

1) recommend one of your favorite movies and

2) give reasons for your recommendation

Your should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2

Do not sign your own name at the end of the leter. User ―LI MING‖ instead.

Do not writer the address.(10 points)

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160---200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

1) describe the drawing briefly,

2) explain it‘s intended meaning, and

3) give your comments.

Your should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

2012考研英语真题

2012考研英语真题

附阅读Part A翻译:

译文 1

2009年纽约交响乐团突然宣布聘用艾伦?吉尔伯特为下一位乐曲指挥,从那时起一直到现在,这次任命都成为古典音乐界的话题。退一步说,从总体上看,反应还是不错的。如冷静的古典音乐评论家安东尼?托姆西尼就这样写:从长时间来看,这次委命是英明的。

然而,这次任命还是令人意外。原因之一在于吉乐伯特名声相对较小。就连那时主张雇用吉尔伯特的托姆西尼,也称吉尔伯特其貌不扬,缺乏一位令人敬仰的指挥大师的气质。作为对这个很牛的管弦乐队(牛的表现:到目前为止一直被牛人领导着)下一任指挥家的描述,这种描述跟虚浮的赞扬一样,确实会令至少一部分泰晤士报的读者觉得愕然不解(让他们觉得不可思议)。

就我的观点而言,我不知道吉尔伯特是不是一位伟大的指挥家,甚至连他是不是算好的指挥家也不敢确定。可以确信的是,虽然他演出了很多令人印象深刻的有趣的乐曲。然而,我不需要访问Avery Fisher Hall(可能是纽约交响乐团所在地,即吉尔伯特表演之所),或者其他地方才能听到有趣的管弦乐。(作者意思是,不需要听吉

尔伯特,到处可以听到有趣的管弦乐。)我所做的,只需要到我的CD棚里去,随便打开我的电脑,从ITUNES 上就可下载比那(当指吉尔伯特表演的)多得多的类似的音乐。

对于唱片,那些专门参加音乐会的人会说,现场表演是不可替代的。他们显然忽视了一个要点。为了替音乐爱好者节省时间、精力、金钱考虑,古典乐曲表演表不仅要在各种表演场所进行竞争,还要在记录这些行为的媒介上竞争。记在唱片上的表演比现场表演更便宜,更易得,甚至质量更好。而且它们的消费时间地点可以任由听者选择。因此,这种唱片的广泛应用,给传统音乐会带来了生存危机。

一个可能的应对方式(解决办法)是古典音乐表演者发明有吸引力的从唱片上听不到的曲子。吉尔伯特在新音乐方面投入了自己的兴趣,这已广被人知:如古典音乐评论家罗斯就把吉尔伯特描述成一个可以扭转交响乐方向的人,认为他把交响乐带进了一个明显不同的更有活力的天地。但是,这种“不同”的实质是什么呢?仅仅扩展交响乐的节目是不够的。吉尔伯特和交响乐要想取得成功,必须首先改变美国旧的管弦乐和它们想吸引的新的听众之间的关系。

译文 2

当列姆?麦克杰八月份从美国银行任上离职时,他的解释确实令人意外。与通常会用的模糊理由不同的是,他直率地说,他离开是为了找一家公司当管理者,而那是他一向就有的追求。他说,作出这一选择纯属个人原因。两周之内,他与哈佛财务服务集团的董事会实现了首次会谈,这一集团在9月29日聘他担任CEO。

麦克杰说,他离开时并没有确定的目标,这使他得以思考自己究竟想管理什么样的公司。这同时也可以让他向外界展示自己的魄力。无独有偶(并不只有他才有这种雄心)。最近几周,雅芳公司和美国联邦快递公司的第二执行官都离开自己的公司,他们的解释都是想当CEO。由于股东施压,董事会需要审查继承人方案,还没有被准许离开的这几位执行官肯定希望事情早点出来结果。商业环境复杂异常,这使得高级经理人员不愿用模糊的声明来损害自己的名声。

随着经济开始出现复苏的迹象,这些希望离任者可能在还没有找到下家时就跳槽。根据“登记册”研究机构的报告,在第三季度,CEO营业额从一年前开始下降了23%,把那些紧跟在这些领导人身后的董事会也弄得神经兮兮。由于经济复苏,那些有抱负的领导人将大有机会。

放弃高级职位去寻找更好的职位,这种决定是非同寻常的,过去可不常见。多年来,执行官和猎头们都坚持认为,最好的CEO候选人需要去挖别人的墙角才能得到(而不是那些主动离开原岗位的人)。某某猎头说,当董事会还没有委托我先去找一个还在任上的CEO时,我不能去考虑那些我在网上一搜就有的人。

那些没有工作去向就跳槽的人不会总是很快找到理想岗位。十年前爱伦?马拉姆从T公司领导人的位子上退下,也是为了当一个CEO。一年前她才成为一家小型电子交易所的领导人。罗伯特在2005年为了当CEO而离开,他最终在一家重要的财务机构找到这种工作是在三年之后。

许多招聘人表示,对于那些最好的演员来说,旧的耻辱正在淡忘。财务危机使得在两个工作机会之间进行选择或者离开更坏的工作这样的行为变得可以接受。“传统规则是,最好呆在你原来的地方,但现在这种规则被从根本上颠覆了。”一个猎头说,“在一个地方呆得越久,就越容易受损。”

译文3

在过去,销售成功的基本法则是:种瓜得瓜,一分耕耘一分收获。现在不同了。传统的付出方式(媒介,指企业付钱给电视台做广告或者报社做报刊广告)——电视购物和印刷广告——虽然仍占主要地位,但是现在的企业可以开发出更多的替代这些媒介的形式。对产品有热情的用户可能通过给在自己网站上注册的顾客发关于产品和商品的电邮的提醒,来建立自己的媒介。这样用户现在接近了广阔的媒介因素,这些因素超越了传统的付费媒介。

付费并占有的媒介,是被想促销自己产品的商人控制的。而对于白捡的媒介(免费的媒介报道)而言,这种商人的角色仅是作为响应用户需求的第一环(直接面对用户的不是他们)。但是在一些案例中,一个商人拥有的媒介成为另一个商人的付费媒介(但有时候,促销产品的商人也直接面对用户,即把别人占有的媒介暂时变成自己占有的媒介)。例如,当一个电子商务零售商在自己的网站上出售广告空间时,就是如此。我们把这种出售的媒介定义为拥有的媒介。这种(出售空间式的)拥有的媒介是如此强大普遍,以致于其他团体把他们的希望(满意;内容;电子商务发动机)寄托在这种环境中。这种(寄托)趋势虽然依然在婴儿期,但我们相信这种从零售商和旅行提供商(如航空公司、旅馆)有效起步的趋势会越来越强劲。例如强生建立了一个婴儿中心,这是一种杰出的媒介资产,可用于推销提升配套产品,包括那些有竞争力的产品。除了带来利润,除了由于其他商人的到

场可以使这个地方显得客观可信,以及给各个公司有机会了解有关其他公司需求的有价值的信息,还能有利于拓展所有公司都关心的用户交易。

这类戏剧性的技术革新给商人带来数量越来越多(种类也越来越多)的通信机会的同时,也同样会提高风险。因为热情的用户会更快、更形象、更有破坏力地表达自己的反对,这种被绑架的媒介,与上述的免费利用的媒介背道而驰(不是商人所希望出现的)。此时,媒介就像人质一样,成为敌人可用的财产或者发起的一次行动(敌人有用户、其他竞争对手、对某商标或产品向来没有好话的社会活动家)。例如,社会网络中的成员正在意识到他们可以绑架媒介,来对建立媒介的那些商人施加压力。

如果这种事情发生了,热情的用户就会努力劝说其他人抵制产品,使得目标公司声名处于危险之中。此时,公司的反应往往不会足够快,也不会足够理性,学习曲线将会变得很陡(学习曲线是表示单位产品生产时间与所生产的产品总数量之间的关系的一条曲线。一般情况下,产品总量越大,单个产品生产时间越短。也可以表示工人一定时间所犯错误数量与练习时间的关系,一般练习时间越长,单位时间内错误越少。这里的曲线陡时大约表示相同产量规模下,现在比原来单个产品所消耗的资源更多,或者说相同练习程度下,一定时间错误更多。总之,是比原来更糟糕了)。例如丰田汽车,今年早些时候通过相对来说较快和精心策划的行动从车辆召回危机中把损尽量降下来,丰田的行动包括努力请用户进土威特这样的地方,挖掘社会新闻的利用等等。

译文 4

毫无疑问,作为有煸动性的杂志封面故事,詹尼弗西尼尔的深刻见解——“我爱我的孩子们,我讨厌我目前的生活状况”——可以唤起人们的谈兴。可是,人们不会想到,养孩子可不是一件完全令人愉悦、生活充实的事情。西尼尔并没有简单地说,孩子使得父母既快乐又痛苦。她建议,我们需要重新定义幸福:幸福不应该像过去那样被定义为由一个个瞬间的快乐组合而成的东西;我们应该把幸福视为一种过去的状态。尽管抚养孩子的日子漫长难熬,令人筋疲力尽,但是西尼尔认为,正是那些心绪沉重的时刻,日后却给我们带来由衷的欣喜。

杂志封面上一位有魅力的母亲抱着一个可爱的婴儿,这种圣母与圣子的图画这周在报摊上可不止西尼尔这一起。例如杂志上讲到最近刚收养孩子的母亲——有时是刚变成单身母亲的人——桑德拉布鲁克,以及那种很常见的“詹尼弗阿尼斯顿怀孕了”的新闻。实际上,每周都有至少一位名流母亲、或者准母亲在杂志上笑迎读者。

在一个坚持不懈地倡导生育的社会中,承认自己后悔生育孩子就相当于承认自己赞同谋杀宠物猫,这难道不值得反思吗?把父母亲的后悔与孩子的后悔相提并论(可能指把作为孩子家长的那种辛苦产生的悔恨理解为根源出在孩子身上,从而产生关于生下孩子的后悔),这显然并不合理。(因此)不情愿养孩子的父母很少会反思自己是否应该养育孩子。但是那不幸福的无孩子的人却为类似“孩子是世上唯一最可珍惜的东西”这样的信息所烦恼。显然,他们的不幸必须通过生儿育女才能得以消除。

当然,在美国周刊与人这样的杂志上所提供的“社会名流父母亲”现象是不切实际的。特别是当“父母亲”是布鲁克这样的单身母亲时更是如此。多项研究表明,有孩子的父母很少比没有孩子的夫妇更快乐,而单亲家庭中的家长烦愁尤甚。这并不奇怪,因为一个人养一个孩子实在太麻烦了。然而,你看看桑德拉和布列尼说的话:自己“一个人”养孩子,其实非常简单。(她们当然觉得简单了,因为她们是在周围人全天候的帮助下养着孩子的。)

当然,要说很多人傻头傻脑地生育孩子,只是因为里斯和安格丽娜这种名流使这种行为看上去显得诱人,这也是不可能的——多数成年人其实理解:养孩子可不是像做个发型那么简单。但是这确实是一件很有趣的值得反思的事情:我们每周看的“轻松快乐做父母”的杂志封面,并不是通过潜意识的方式里让我们对(没有孩子的)现实经历不满,而是这些图片在潜意识中让我们有那种想成为雷切尔的心理,但实际上却使得我们看上去有点像詹尼弗亚尼斯顿。(大约指雷切尔养孩子显得潇洒,而詹尼弗生养孩子显得狼狈。)

2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I Use of English

Directions:

In 1924 America's National Research Council sent two engineers to supervise a series of industrial experiments at a large telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting大1家workers' productivity. Instead, the studies ended 大2家

giving their name to the "Hawthorne effect", the extremely influential idea that the very 大3家to being

experimented upon changed subjects' behavior.

The idea arose because of the 大4家behavior of the women in the Hawthorne plant. According to 大5家of the experiments, their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not 大6家what was done in the experiment; 大7家something was changed, productivity rose. A(n) 大8家that they were being experimented upon seemed to be 大9家to alter workers' behavior 大10家itself.

After several decades, the same data were 大11家to econometric the analysis. Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store 大12家the descriptions on record, no systematic 大13家was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting.

It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to 大14家interpretation of what happed. 大15家, lighting was always changed on a Sunday. When work started again on Monday, output 大16家rose compared with the previous Saturday and 17 to rise for the next couple of days. 大18家, a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers 大19家to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case, before 大20家 a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged

"Hawthorne effect" is hard to pin down.

1. [A] affected [B] achieved [C] extracted[D] restored

2. [A] at [B] up [C] with [D] off

3. [A] truth [B] sight [C] act [D] proof

4. [A] controversial [B] perplexing [C] mischievous [D] ambiguous

5. [A] requirements [B] explanations [C] accounts [D] assessments

6. [A] conclude[B] matter [C] indicate [D] work

7. [A] as far as [B] for fear that [C] in case that [D] so long as

8. [A] awareness [B] expectation [C] sentiment [D] illusion

9. [A] suitable [B] excessive [C] enough [D] abundant

10. [A] about [B] for [C] on [D] by

11. [A] compared [B] shown [C] subjected [D] conveyed

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