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Statistical Algorithms for Identification of Astronomical X-Ray Sources

Statistical Algorithms for Identification of Astronomical X-Ray Sources

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Astron.Nachr./AN 000,No.00,1–23(0000)/DOI please set DOI!⋆Corresponding author:e-mail:hz@mssl.ucl.ac.uk ferent classes of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)(Miyaji et al.2000;Barger et al.2001a;Komossa &Hasinger 2002;Brandt &Kaspi 2003;Cowie et al.2003;Bauer et al.2004),their intrinsic absorption (Kim &Elvis 1999;Wilkes 2002;Comastri et al.(2002);Matt et al.2003)and their relation-ship with the characteristics of the host galaxy,its star for-mation history (Ghosh 2002;Sipior et al.2003;Cohen 2003;King 2004;Norman et al.2004;Silverman et al.2005)and the central super-massive black hole (Barger et al.2001b;Granato et al.2002;Brandt et al.2002).Observations have also revealed the relation between hard X-ray sources,hid-den broad line AGN(BLAGN)or BL-Lac(Ueda et al.2003;Comastri et al.2003;Piconcelli et al.2003)and X-ray back-ground in hard (Gandhi &Fabian 2003;Giacconi et al.2001;Tozzi et al.2001;De Luca &Molendi 2004;Silva et al.2004)and soft bands (Soltan et al.2005).Although these observations have significantly improv-ed our knowledge about X-ray sources (Page et al.2000;Maiolino et al.2000;Risaliti et al.2000),they only include relatively small number of spectroscopically identified X-ray objects.Despite the fact that they belong to randomly selected fields,it is not certain how much other criteria such as brightness of the optical counterparts and the tendency to study special classes of sourc
es more than others,influ-ence conclusions about populations and their physical con-ditions.Thus,it seems that much larger and unbiased sam-ples representing different category of objects,with both typical characteristics of the population,and from extreme

Astron.Nachr./AN 000,No.00,1–23(0000)/DOI please set DOI!⋆Corresponding author:e-mail:hz@mssl.ucl.ac.uk ferent classes of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)(Miyaji et al.2000;Barger et al.2001a;Komossa &Hasinger 2002;Brandt &Kaspi 2003;Cowie et al.2003;Bauer et al.2004),their intrinsic absorption (Kim &Elvis 1999;Wilkes 2002;Comastri et al.(2002);Matt et al.2003)and their relation-ship with the characteristics of the host galaxy,its star for-mation history (Ghosh 2002;Sipior et al.2003;Cohen 2003;King 2004;Norman et al.2004;Silverman et al.2005)and the central super-massive black hole (Barger et al.2001b;Granato et al.2002;Brandt et al.2002).Observations have also revealed the relation between hard X-ray sources,hid-den broad line AGN(BLAGN)or BL-Lac(Ueda et al.2003;Comastri et al.2003;Piconcelli et al.2003)and X-ray back-ground in hard (Gandhi &Fabian 2003;Giacconi et al.2001;Tozzi et al.2001;De Luca &Molendi 2004;Silva et al.2004)and soft bands (Soltan et al.2005).Although these observations have significantly improv-ed our knowledge about X-ray sources (Page et al.2000;Maiolino et al.2000;Risaliti et al.2000),they only include relatively small number of spectroscopically identified X-ray objects.Despite the fact that they belong to randomly selected fields,it is not certain how much other criteria such as brightness of the optical counterparts and the tendency to study special classes of sources more than others,influ-ence conclusions about populations and their physical con-ditions.Thus,it seems that much larger and unbiased sam-ples representing different category of objects,with both typical characteristics of the population,and from extreme

parts of the observable parameter space are necessary.It is

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