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第十一章 杂环化合物和生物碱_0

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第十一章杂环化合物和生物碱

第十一章杂环化合物和生物碱第十一章杂环化合物和生物碱参考答案 1.命名下列化合物:

(1) -呋喃甲酸(2) -甲基吡咯(3) -噻吩磺酸(4)-吡啶甲酰胺(5) 4-甲基吡啶盐酸盐(或:

氯化-4-甲基吡啶)(6) 4-羟基嘧啶(7) 5-硝基喹啉(8)2, 6, 8-三羟基嘌呤 2.写出下列化合物的构造式:

(1) (2) BrOBr(3) SCH2OH 3 2 (5) (6) CH2COOH OCHO(7) N NOH 3.把下列化合物按其碱性由强至弱排列。

六氢吡啶甲胺氨吡啶苯胺吡咯 4.用化学方法区别下列各组化合物。

(1)与 FeCl3 溶液作用呈紫色的为苯酚;与 H2SO4-靛红呈蓝色的为噻吩。

(2)蒸气遇蘸有浓 HCl 的松木片显红色的为吡咯。

(3)与 CH3COOH/苯胺显示亮红色的为糠醛。

5.用适当的化学方法,将下列混合物中少量杂质除去。

(1)加入浓硫酸一起振荡,噻吩发生磺化反应生成噻吩磺酸溶于浓硫酸。

(2)利用吡啶的弱碱性,加入 HCl 使其生成吡啶盐酸除去。

6.完成下列反应式。

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(1) OCH2OHOCOOH (2) NI HCH3 COOH (3) CONH2 NN COOCH3(4) NOH(8) NNH2N(4) NSO3H3(5) CH3OCHCHO(6) NCOOHNCONH2NCNCH2NH27.喹啉硝化反应发生在苯环上;吲哚硝化

反应发生在吡咯环上。

8.互变异构体的构造式如下:

9.答:

吡啶和六氢吡啶的分子中,氮原子上都有未共用的电子对,都

可以和质子结合显碱性。

两者不同的是氮原子上未共用电子对所处轨道的类型不同,吡

啶中氮原子上的未共用电子对处于 sp2 杂化轨道上,而六氢吡啶中

氮原子上的未共用电子对处于 sp3 杂化轨道上。

处于 sp2 杂化轨道上的电子受到原子核的束缚力较大,即提

供电子的能力较弱,所以吡啶的碱性比六氢吡啶弱。

10.化合物 C5H4O2 构造式为:

OH(1) NH 2N 鸟嘌呤 2 (2) HON 胞嘧啶(3) HON 尿

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